Disability Information

    Anxiety Disorders

    Apraxia/Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Auditory Processing Disorders

    Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Bipolar Disorder

    Blindness/Visual Impairment

      Apple Invents Clothing Technology to Assist Individuals with Visual Impairments

      According to the latest statistics gathered by the World Health Organization (WHO) and published in 2017, an estimated 253 million individuals live with some degree of visual impairment - an estimated 36 million of whom are blind, and 217 million who're living with moderate to severe visual impairment. Apple has maintained a firm position of support for these individuals and others who endure some extent of visual or sensory impairment. The company's macOS and iOS software, for example, is loaded with advanced Accessibility features meant to enhance and optimize its software for use by the sensory deficient. In a patent application filed early in July with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Apple describes a revolutionary new invention designed to even further improve the lives of those struggling with visual impairment - some of whom either currently use, or would otherwise be assisted by the use of, physical aids to facilitate their autonomous navigation. Titled "Guidance Device for the Sensory Impaired," Apple's invention describes multiple embodiments of a wearable 'Smart Clothing' (i.e., a shirt or jacket) that's technologically equipped with advanced components and sensors acting as a visual aid.
      Click this link to read the article.

      Screen children with neurodevelopmental disabilities for vision problems

      NASAT reports that "Many children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and spina bifida have deficits in their senses, with vision impairment perhaps being the most limiting to successful participation in life. Several studies have found that vision care represents one of the greatest unmet needs for children with special health care needs. In addition, infants and toddlers who are socially at risk with functional vision difficulties make up one of the highest subgroups of developmental vulnerability. Examination of the eyes is a routine part of a well-child check. Thus, pediatricians are in a unique position to detect vision impairment in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities and ensure that appropriate referrals and intervention occur and classroom accommodations are made."
      Click this link to read the article.

      Finding help with low vision

      NIH News in Health "For people with low vision, everyday activities can be a challenge. People with low vision don’t see well even with standard glasses, contact lenses, surgery, or medicine. They may have trouble reading traffic signs or recognizing faces. It can be challenging to match clothes of different colors. The lighting in a room may often seem too dim. "
      Click this link to read the article.

      Five innovations harness new technologies for people with visual impairment, blindness

      NASAT reports that "During Low Vision Awareness Month, the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health, is highlighting new technologies and tools in the works to help the 4.1 million Americans living with low vision or blindness. The innovations aim to help people with vision loss more easily accomplish daily tasks, from navigating office buildings to crossing a street. Many of the innovations take advantage of computer vision, a technology that enables computers to recognize and interpret the complex assortment of images, objects and behaviors in the surrounding environment."
      Click this link to read the article.

      US Department of Education issues policy memorandum on the importance of teaching Braille to students with visual impairments

      The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education has issued guidance to States and Committees on Special Education reiterating the importance of teaching Braille to students who are blind or visually impaired.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the memorandum.

      NICHCY Blindness/Visual Impairment Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Blindness/Visual Impairment Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

      Braile versus new technology for the visually impaired

      With the advent of readily accessible technology, such as mobile phones, many individuals with visual impairments are not learning to use Braile. While new technologies are great, this means that many individuals with visual impairments are essentially illiterate.
      Click this link to read or listen to the NPR Story..


    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

      Information on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

      On the recommendation of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee (CFSAC) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the CDC and the U.S. Department of Ed have collaborated to disseminate information about Pediatric Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) to all Parent Training and Information Centers."
      Click this link to read the news story.

    Cerebral Palsy

      FDA approves botox for lower limb spasticity

      Medscape reports that "The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox, Allergan Inc) to decrease the severity of stiffness in ankle and toe muscles among adults with lower limb spasticity, the company has announced. The approval was based on a large, development program that included a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that evaluated the safety and efficacy of placebo and Botox at a dose of 300 to 400 units divided among ankle and toe muscles in more than 400 patients with lower limb spasticity following a stroke. The study showed statistically significant improvements at weeks 4 and 6 in the average change in muscle tone, measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale ankle score, and in clinical patient benefit, as assessed by the Clinical Global Impression of Change by Physician. Benefits were observed for arthralgia, back pain, myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, and injection site pain."
      Click this link to read the news story.

      NICHCY Cerebral Palsy Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Cerebral Palsy Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.


    Deafness/Hearing Loss

      What I Wish People Understood About Hearing Loss and Invisible Disabilities - Lo que deseo que la gente entienda sobre la pérdida auditiva y las discapacidades invisibles

      For many people, disabilities are something visible, or something a teacher would encounter in an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). That is true for some disabilities, but not for all. I am hearing impaired. Being hearing impaired means having a nearly invisible disability, and having one that is often misunderstood.
      Para muchas personas, las discapacidades son algo visible, o algo que un maestro encontraría en un Plan de Educación Individualizado (IEP). Eso es cierto para algunas discapacidades, pero no para todas. Tengo deficiencias auditivas. Ser discapacitado auditivo significa tener una discapacidad casi invisible, y tener uno que a menudo se malinterpreta.
      Click this link to read the article.
      Haga clic en este enlace para leer el artículo. No hay versión en español disponible.

      TED - The Science of hearing - La ciencia de la audición

      The ability to recognize sounds and identify their location is possible thanks to the auditory system. That's comprised of two main parts: the ear, and the brain. The ear's task is to convert sound energy into neural signals; the brain's is to receive and process the information those signals contain. To understand how that works, Douglas L. Oliver follows a sound on its journey into the ear. [TED-Ed Animation by Cabong Studios]
      La capacidad de reconocer sonidos e identificar su ubicación es posible gracias al sistema auditivo. Se compone de dos partes principales: el oído y el cerebro. La tarea del oído es convertir la energía del sonido en señales neuronales; el cerebro es recibir y procesar la información que contienen esas señales. Para entender cómo funciona eso, Douglas L. Oliver sigue un sonido en su viaje hacia el oído. [Animación TED-Ed por Cabong Studios]
      Click this link to watch the video.
      Haga clic en este enlace para ver el video en English. No hay versión en español disponible.

      From Translating Hearing Aids to Sign-Language Gloves, Amazing Assistive Technology

      Think that assistive technology for the deaf and hard of hearing community is all about your run-of-the-mill hearing aids here in 2018? Think again! From signing robot arms to mind-reading hearing aids, the next few years are going to be pretty darn amazing for accessibility technology if this list is anything to go by. Here are some of the most impressive tech projects we've come across in this area. Signing is all well and great, but like any language it's not much good if one side of the conversation doesn't speak it. That's where a multi-year robotics project from researchers at Belgium's University of Antwerp comes into play. That have developed a 3D-printed robotic hand capable of translating spoken and written words into sign language gestures. The device recognizes these words using a webcam, and then communicates them to the user through "fingerspelling," a mode of sign language which spells out words letter-by-letter with single hand gestures.
      Click this link to go to the site..

      SpeakSee Crowdfunding Video from SpeakSee on Vimeo.

      Hearing Hope - Enter the world of hearing loss

      Enter the world of hearing loss, as told by individuals who live with it, their loved ones, and those dedicated to prevention and the advancement of better treatments and cures. Find out why hearing loss needs stop being hidden—and become visible—and how Hearing Health Foundation (HHF) is working to better the lives of those affected.
      Click this link to go to the site..

      4201 Schools in NY State

      #4201 Schools and #RSDeaf have New York State supported programs for families with deaf, blind, and severely physically disabled children and youth.

      What do cochlear implants and hearing aids cound like?

      From Science Friday demonstrations on how these devices work and how they probably sound.
      Click this link to read a pdf of the article..

      Feds plan new law on movie captions

      The Democrat and Chronicle reports that "Movie theaters may soon be required to provide special devices to help deaf and blind moviegoers enjoy films, but somemembers of the local deaf community say the proposal doesn't go far enough."
      Click this link to read a pdf of the article..

      New American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidance on ear infections

      The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued new guidance on the management of ear infections. These involve primarily the use of antibiotics in the treatment of ear infections. There is also, however, a clear recommendation for speech and language and hearing evaluations if a child has fluid in their ears for moe than three months. This is an important recommendation that recognizes the connection between hearing and current and later speech and language development.
      Click on this link to read about the statement.
      Click this link to read a CBS News report on the guideline.
      Click this link to read the AAP Clinical Practice Guidelines.

      New Research: Parents unaware of Hearing Loss Risk

      Less than 5% of parents think their child is at risk for high-frequency hearing loss despite the silent epidemic affecting almost 20 percent of adolescents, according to results of an Internet-based survey published online November 21 in JAMA Otolaryngolgy–Head Neck Surgery.
      Click this link to about the study.

      NICHCY Deafness/Hearing Loss Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Deafness/Hearing Loss Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

      Fact Sheet on Secondary School Experiences & Academic Performance of Students with Hearing Impairments

      The National Center for Special Education Research has released a fact sheet describing the gaps between the academic achievement of youth with hearing impairments and their peers in the general population. Among the facts reported are that higher percentages of youth with hearing impairments scored below the mean across subtests of academic achievement compared with students in the general population.
      This link opens a 29 page PDF document.

      New study shows teen girls rate of hearing loss increasing

      New research published in Pediatrics shows that the rate of hearing loss in teen girls is increasing. Traditionally teenage boys have shown a higher rates of hearing loss than boys. In this study the researchers found that teen girls showed higher rates of noise-induced hearing-threshold shifts, or NITS. In NITS people have trouble hearing sounds in the middle of the sound spectrum (which can include some human speech and higher-pitched sounds from musical instruments). More specifically the researchers found that teen girls had experienced an increase in the rate of NITSs, from 12 percent in the first survey to 17 percent in the second survey.
      To read more click this link.
      To read the article in Pediatrics click this link.

      American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) statement on cochlear implants

      The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a statement on cochlear implants in children, published in the August issue of Pediatrics. The new policy statement covers surgical site infections and prevention and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and meningitis.
      Click on this link to read about the statement.
      To read the AAP Statement click on this link.


    Developmental Coordination Disorders/Dyspraxia

      What is Dyspraxia

      Dyspraxia goes by many names: developmental coordination disorder, motor learning difficulty, motor planning difficulty and apraxia of speech. It can affect the development of gross motor skills like walking or jumping. It can also affect fine motor skills. These include things like the hand movements needed to write clearly and the mouth and tongue movements needed to pronounce words correctly.
      Click this link to read the more about Dyspraxia.

      Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD at Risk for Depression, Anxiety Symptoms

      A new study finds a correlation between having both ADHD and a Developmental Coordination Disorder and anxiety and depression. The study suggests that children with both ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorders are at greater risk for more severe issues with Anxiety and/or Depression, and suggests the need to screen children with this combination of disorders for anxiety and depression.
      Click this link to read the article..

    Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Down Syndrome

      Video: Down Syndrome and Special Needs


      Study offers new clues to a possible Down Syndrome treatment

      A genetic abnormality in the brain could be integral to Down syndrome, researchers say in a finding that could point to new treatment options for those with the chromosomal disorder. Though it’s long been thought that many biological changes associated with Down syndrome occur prenatally, the study published online this week in the journal Neuron suggests that alterations in the brain continue to present throughout life.
      Click this link to read the information.

      Information on Down Syndrome

      Understanding Down Syndrome. Each year, approximately one in every 800 to 1,000 babies is born with Down syndrome, a condition that may delay a child's physical and mental development.
      Click this link to read the information.

      Down Syndrome Video

      An expectant mother found out her unborn child had Down Syndrome. She wrote to an Down Syndrome advocacy group asking what life would be like for her child. They made this video to answer her question. Well worth watching.

      NICHCY Down Syndrome Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Down Syndrome Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

    Epilepsy/Seizure Disorders

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. Epilepsy is a disorder with many possible causes. Anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity - from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development - can lead to seizures. Epilepsy may develop because of an abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters, or some combination of these factors. Having a seizure does not necessarily mean that a person has epilepsy. Only when a person has had two or more seizures is he or she considered to have epilepsy. EEGs and brain scans are common diagnostic test for epilepsy.
    For additional information click on the following links:
    National Institue of Health Page on Epilepsy.
    Epilepsy Foundation.

      Epilepsy Research: Electronic Device Implanted in the Brain Could Stop Seizures

      Researchers have successfully demonstrated how an electronic device implanted directly into the brain can detect, stop and even prevent epileptic seizures. The researchers, from the University of Cambridge, the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines and INSERM in France, implanted the device into the brains of mice, and when the first signals of a seizure were detected, delivered a native brain chemical which stopped the seizure from progressing. The results, reported in the journal Science Advances, could also be applied to other conditions including brain tumours and Parkinson's disease. The work represents another advance in the development of soft, flexible electronics that interface well with human tissue. "These thin, organic films do minimal damage in the brain, and their electrical properties are well-suited for these types of applications," said Professor George Malliaras, the Prince Philip Professor of Technology in Cambridge's Department of Engineering, who led the research.
      Click this link to go to the article>

      Absence Epilepsy: When the Brain is Like 'an Orchestra without a Conductor'

      At first, the teacher described her six-year-old student as absentminded, a daydreamer. The boy was having difficulty paying attention in class. As the teacher watched the boy closely, she realized that he was not daydreaming. He often blanked out for a few seconds and wouldn't respond when she called his name. On occasion, he would blink a lot and his eyes would roll up. The teacher talked to the boy's parents about his concerning behavior. His parents took him to the doctor and, after a few tests, he was diagnosed with absence epilepsy and prescribed medication. Absence epilepsy is the most common type of seizure disorders in children. "In about 80 percent of children with absence seizures, the episodes usually stop around puberty. The other 20 percent will continue to have seizures," said first and corresponding author Dr. Jochen Meyer, instructor of neurology and neuroscience at Baylor College of Medicine. "Absence seizures, even if they stop, are a disabling disorder because they cause children to be momentarily absent during periods of their formative years."
      Click this link to go to the article>

      Stress Reduction Techniques Cut Seizure Rate in Severe Epilepsy

      Stress reduction techniques appear to reduce seizure frequency in patients with medication-resistant epilepsy, new research shows.
      Click this link to go to the article>

      Cannabidiol may help to reduce seizures for people with treatment-resistant form of epilepsy

      Science daily reports that "Treatment with a pharmaceutical formulation of cannabidiol alongside other anti-epilepsy treatments helped to reduce the number of drop seizures -- seizures which involve sudden falls due to loss of muscle tone -- in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who did not respond to previous treatment, according to a phase 3 randomised clinical trial published in The Lancet. Around 1-4% of childhood epilepsy cases are caused by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome -- a lifelong, severe form of epilepsy involving multiple seizure types and cognitive impairment. While there are a range of drug and non-pharmacological treatments (such as ketogenic diet, nerve stimulation, and brain surgery) available, these only help 10% of patients become seizure free. "
      Click this link to go to the article>

      New discovery could be a major advance for neurological diseases

      Science daily reports that "The discovery of a new mechanism that controls the way nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other to regulate our learning and long-term memory could have major benefits to understanding how the brain works and what goes wrong in neurodegenerative disorders such as epilepsy and dementia. The breakthrough, published in Nature Neuroscience, was made by scientists at the University of Bristol and the University of Central Lancashire. The findings will have far-reaching implications in many aspects of neuroscience."
      Click this link to go to the article>

      NIH - A look at Epilepsy

      The word "epilepsy" might make you think of intense seizures with muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. But most epilepsy seizures are surprisingly subtle and may be hard to recognize. Here's what you need to know.
      Click this link to read go to the NIH page.

      NICHCY Epilepsy Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Epilepsy Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

      Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder impacts you, but you don’t know it | Nora Boesem | TEDxRapidCity

      As a foster mother to children with FASD, Nora Boesem has seen the effects of alcohol first hand. However, FASD often goes undiagnosed and is creating a burden on us all.

      Fetal alcohol disorders are more common than you think

      From PBS - "Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a possible result from mothers drinking during pregnancy, has flown under the radar for decades. Now new conservative estimates published in The Journal of the American Medical Association show that anywhere from 1.1 to 5 percent of the U.S. population is affected, meaning it could be more common than autism. Amna Nawaz reports."

      Study of first-graders shows fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevalent in U.S. communities

      National Institute of Healh reports that "A study of more than 6,000 first-graders across four U.S. communities has found that a significant number of the children have fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with conservative rates ranging from 1 to 5 percent in community samples. The new findings represent more accurate prevalence estimates of FASD among general U.S. communities than prior research. Previous FASD estimates were based on smaller study populations and did not reflect the overall U.S. population. The study was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health."
      Click this link to go to the article>

      Parenting significantly impacts development of children with Fragile X Syndrome

      Science daily reports that "University of Kansas researchers have found that certain specific parenting practices are significantly associated with the development of communication and language skills in children with Fragile X syndrome. These same parent behaviors are also associated with the growth of socialization and daily living skills of these children. Parenting even mitigated declines often reported in children with FXS beginning in middle childhood. Fragile X Syndrome is the leading genetic cause of autism and other intellectual disabilities"
      Click this link to go to the article>

      Fetal Alcohol Exposure Often Mistaken as Behavioral Issues

      Many children with behavioral issues often have undiagnosed Fetal Alchohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcholol Effects"
      Click this link to go to the articlea>

      NIH statement for International Fetal Alcholol Syndrome Awareness Day

      September 9th is the International Fetal Alcholol Syndrome Awareness Day. "International Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Awareness Day, recognized every year on Sept. 9th, is an important reminder that prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disorders in the United States. Almost 40 years have passed since we recognized that drinking during pregnancy can result in a wide range of disabilities for children, of which fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe. Yet, 1 in 13 pregnant women report drinking in the past 30 days. Of those, about 1 in 6 report binge drinking during that time."
      Click this link to go to the site

      Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fact Sheet

      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet

    Fragile X Syndrome

    The genetic disorder Fragile X syndrome, which results from mutations in a gene on the X chromosome, is the most commonly inherited form of developmental and intellectual disability.

      Fragile X Syndrome's Link to Autism, Explained

      Fragile X syndrome is a leading genetic cause of autism. About one in three people with the syndrome also has autism. But even those who do not have autism often share certain autistic traits, such as avoidance of eye contact and difficulties in social situations. Mutations in the gene FMR1, which cause fragile X syndrome, account for up to 5 percent of autism cases. For these reasons, research on fragile X can provide insights into the biology of autism and its treatment. Here is what scientists know about the mechanisms that underlie fragile X and some research angles they are pursuing. Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of intellectual disability. It affects roughly 1 in 4,000 men and about half as many women. People with the syndrome also tend to have unusual physical features, such as a long face, large ears and flat feet. Some men have large testes, and some people with the condition have seizures.
      Click this link to go to the site

      New TSRI Study Shows Early Brain Changes in Fragile X Syndrome

      The SCRIPS Research Institure reports that "A new study led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is giving researchers a first look at the early stages of brain development in patients with Fragile X syndrome, a disorder that causes mild to severe intellectual disability and is the most common genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder. “We’re the first to see that these changes happen very early in brain development,” said TSRI Professor Jeanne Loring, who led the study, published this week in the journal Brain. “This may be the only way we’ll be able to identify possible drug treatments to minimize the effects of the disorder.”"
      Click this link to go to the site

      NIH awards $35 Million for Centers for Collaborative Research in Fragile X

      The National Institutes of Health is making funding awards of $35 million over the next five years to support the Centers for Collaborative Research in Fragile X program. Investigators at these centers will seek to better understand Fragile X-associated disorders and work toward developing effective treatments.
      Click this link to go to the site

    Intellectual Disability

      The Birds and the Bees: Teaching Comprehensive Human Sexuality Education

      "Mrs. Webb is an experienced seventh-grade special education teacher. Although her school offers human sexuality education, most of her students with intellectual disabilities do not take the course. There have been concerns that the general sex education curriculum, which has not been adapted for children with intellectual disabilities, is inappropriate, but Mrs. Webb knows that this information is important to her students. She has never taught human sexuality, but she has to deal with issues related to sexual expression every year. Mrs. Webb wants to be proactive about implementing human sexuality education; however, she is not sure where to begin."
      Click on this link to read the article..

      Connections: New York State's Optional ID cards for People with Intellectual Disabilities - Conexiones: Tarjetas de identificación opcionales del estado de Nueva York para personas con discapacidades intelectuales

      New York State has launched new, optional ID cards for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The goal is to help law enforcement and first responders better interact with people who may not be able to effectively explain the situations they are in. The cards come with mixed reviews, especially on how effective they may be
      El Estado de Nueva York ha lanzado nuevas tarjetas de identificación opcionales para personas con discapacidades intelectuales y de desarrollo. El objetivo es ayudar a los agentes de la ley y los socorristas a interactuar mejor con las personas que pueden no ser capaces de explicar de manera efectiva las situaciones en las que se encuentran. Las tarjetas vienen con revisiones mixtas, especialmente sobre cuán eficaces pueden ser
      Click this link for more information on the story.
      Haga clic en este enlace para obtener más información sobre la historia en English. No hay versión en español disponible.

      Study uncovers link between air pollution and intellectual disabilities in children

      British children with intellectual disabilities are more likely than their peers to live in areas with high outdoor air pollution, according to a new Journal of Intellectual Disability Research study funded by Public Health England. The findings come from an analysis of data extracted from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample of more than 18,000 UK children born in 2000 to 2002. Averaging across ages, children with intellectual disabilities were 33 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of diesel particulate matter, 30 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of nitrogen dioxide, 30 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of carbon monoxide, and 17 percent more likely to live in areas with high levels of sulphur dioxide.
      Click on this link to read about the article..

      Children With Certain Disabilities at Greater Risk of Abuse

      Medscape reports that "Children with intellectual disabilities and mental/behavioral problems are at greater risk of maltreatment than those with autism, Down syndrome or birth defects, but support for all are needed, researchers in Australia say. Dr. Melissa O’Donnell of Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia in Subiaco, told Reuters Health, “While previous research has consistently found that children with disabilities are at two to three times increased risk of maltreatment, there were no large studies that looked at a range of disability groups to determine if they had different risks.”"
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

      NICHCY Intellectual Disability Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Intellectual Disability Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to read go to the NICHCY page.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

    Learning Disability


      Botox Tops Topiramate for Chronic Migraine Prevention

      OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox, Allergan) treatment is more effective, is better tolerated, and has greater functional improvement in the prevention of chronic migraine compared with the anticonvulsant topiramate, new research suggests. In a 36-week head-to-head, prospective, open-label study, investigators found a greater proportion of patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (40%) achieved the primary outcome of a 50% or greater reduction in headache days from baseline compared with those in topiramate group (12%).
      Click on this link to read about the article..

      Acupuncture Useful for Migraine Prophylaxis

      Medscape reports that ""True" acupuncture reduces migraine frequency, number of days with migraine, and pain intensity compared with "sham" acupuncture and being wait-listed for acupuncture, a randomized trial shows. These are some of the "several benefits" of acupuncture for patients with headache shown in this study, said author Fanrong Liang, MD, Acupuncture and Tuina School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sichuan, China."
      Click on this link to read about the article..
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

      Childhood Asthma linked to increased Migraine risk

      Medscape reports that "Children with persistent asthma have an increased risk for migraine, a new study suggests. The research also shows that children treated long term with nasal or inhaled corticosteroids, or antihistamine therapies, have a decreased risk for migraine. The results highlight the importance of screening for asthma and allergic symptoms in children with migraine, said study authors, led by Camille Aupiais, MD, Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, CHU Robert Debré, Paris, France."
      Click on this link to read about the article..
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

      Asthma appears to double chronic migraine risk

      Medscape reports that "A history of asthma may predict chronic migraine in individuals who have episodic migraine, according to a study published online November 19 in Headache. Because both conditions are prevalent — about 11.6% of the US population has migraine and 7.5% has asthma — comorbidity is likely, but a risk relationship has not been established. "Links between asthma and migraine had been reported, and people who practice headache medicine have noticed that a lot of patients with migraine also have asthma," Richard Lipton, MD, director of the Montefiore Headache Center and the Edwin S. Lowe Chair in Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, told Medscape Medical News."
      Click this link to read the article
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

      Chronic Migraine Puts Heavy Burden on Families

      Researchers found that more than two thirds of patients with chronic migraine feel their condition affects their sexual intimacy and that it makes their spouse's life difficult. Patients also report feeling guilty and worried about the effect their headaches have on their partner and children. Suffering chronic migraines takes a huge toll on family life, a new study suggests.
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

      Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Effective in Kids' Migraines

      Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) should be a first-line treatment along with medication for pediatric migraine, and not just an add-on approach when drugs don't work, a new study suggests. The reduction in headache days per month among children taking amitriptyline and completing a 20-week course of CBT was significantly greater than in those treated with amitriptyline and a course of headache education, the study found.
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

    Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

      National Child Traumatic Stress Initiative (NCTSI) - Iniciativa Nacional de Estrés Traumático Infantil (NCTSI)

      SAMHSA’s National Child Traumatic Stress Initiative improves treatment and services for children, adolescents and families who have experienced traumatic events.
      La Iniciativa Nacional de Estrés Traumático Infantil de SAMHSA mejora el tratamiento y los servicios para niños, adolescentes y familias que han experimentado eventos traumáticos.
      Click this link to get resources and information.
      Haga clic en este enlace para obtener recursos e información..

      PTSD - Self Care is not Selfish

      “Self-care is not selfish.” U.S. Army Veteran (1989-1990) Kathleen Dardis explains why people should get PTSD treatment:

      Dealing With Trauma - Recovering From Frightening Events

      From the NIMH - "It’s natural to be afraid after something scary or dangerous happens. When you feel you’re in danger, your body responds with a rush of chemicals that make you more alert. This is called the “flight or fight” response. It helps us survive life-threatening events."
      Click this link to go to the site.

      National Center for PTSD: Treatment Decision Aid

      If you're not sure what kind of treatment is best for you, check out our Decision Aid to learn about and compare effective PTSD treatment options..
      Click this link to go to the site.

      What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

      This whiteboard video from the Veteran's Health Administration explains trauma and PTSD symptoms using hand-drawn whiteboard animation that reflects the story being presented (1 of 6 videos in series). Going to the site will let you watch the other 5 videos in the series.
      Click this link to go to the site.

      PTSD and the Brain

      PTSD and the brain from the Veteran's Adminstration.
      Click this link to go to the site.

      Treatment choices for PTSD: Know your options

      This whiteboard video from the Veteran's Health Administration explains trauma and PTSD symptoms using hand-drawn whiteboard animation that reflects the story being presented (1 of 6 videos in series). Going to the site will let you watch the other 5 videos in the series.
      Click this link to go to the site.

      National Center for PTSD: Evidence Based Treatment


      National Center for PTSD: Cognitive Processing Therapy


      National Center for PTSD: Prolonged Exposure Therapy


      National Center for PTSD: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD


      National Center for PTSD: Medications for PTSD


      NIMH Information on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

      PTSD is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event.
      Click this link to go to the site.

      Information on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

      Helpful information on PTSD from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. This is not just for military personnel or veterans. You can listen, read, or watch the information.
      Click this link to go to the site.

      DSM-5 Changes in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

      In the recently released DSM-5, PTSD was moved from the "Anxiety Disorders" chapter to a new chapter titled "Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders," and a fourth diagnostic cluster (in addition to Criteria B, C, and D) capturing behavioral symptoms has been added.
      Click this link to read the full article here.

      New Research: Little-known Growth Factor Enhances Memory, Prevents Forgetting in Rats

      A naturally occurring growth factor significantly boosted retention and prevented forgetting of a fear memory when injected into rats' memory circuitry during time-limited windows when memories become fragile and changeable. In the study funded by the National Institutes of Health, animals treated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) excelled at remembering to avoid a location where they had previously experienced a mild shock
      read the full article here

      Research suggests genetic predisposition to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

      A combination of new studies point to a genetic predisposition for some individuals to have a greater risk for developing a Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
      The first study was conducted at Emory University.
      The second study to be published in the November issues of Archives of General Psychiatry was completed at Yale University.
      For a review of this article follow this link. To read the Medscape review click on this link.

    Risk Factors

      Early-life challenges affect how children focus, face the day - Los desafíos de la vida temprana afectan la forma en que los niños se enfocan, enfrentan el día

      Adversity early in life tends to affect a child's executive function skills -- their ability to focus, for example, or organize tasks. Experiences such as poverty, residential instability, or parental divorce or substance abuse, also can lead to changes in a child's brain chemistry, muting the effects of stress hormones. These hormones rise to help us face challenges, stress or to simply "get up and go." Together, these impacts to executive function and stress hormones create a snowball effect, adding to social and emotional challenges that can continue through childhood. A new University of Washington study examines how adversity can change the ways children develop.
      La adversidad temprana en la vida tiende a afectar las habilidades de función ejecutiva de un niño: su capacidad para concentrarse, por ejemplo, u organizar tareas. Experiencias como la pobreza, la inestabilidad residencial o el divorcio de los padres o el abuso de sustancias, también pueden conducir a cambios en la química cerebral de un niño, silenciando los efectos de las hormonas del estrés. Estas hormonas aumentan para ayudarnos a enfrentar los desafíos, el estrés o simplemente para "levantarnos e irnos". Juntos, estos impactos en la función ejecutiva y las hormonas del estrés crean un efecto de bola de nieve, que se suma a los desafíos sociales y emocionales que pueden continuar durante la infancia. Un nuevo estudio de la Universidad de Washington examina cómo la adversidad puede cambiar la forma en que se desarrollan los niños.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Pesticide Exposure Linked to Teen Depression - Exposición a pesticidas vinculada a la depresión adolescente

      Adolescents exposed to elevated levels of pesticides are at an increased risk of depression, according to a new study led by Jose R. Suarez-Lopez, MD, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health at University of California San Diego School of Medicine. The study was published online (ahead of print) in June 2019 in the journal International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. Suarez-Lopez and colleagues have been tracking the development of children living near agriculture in the Ecuadorian Andes since 2008. In this latest study, they examined 529 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17. Ecuador is the world's third-largest exporter of roses, with much of the flower production located near the homes of participants. Like many other agricultural crops, flowers are routinely sprayed with organophosphate insecticides, which are known to affect the human cholinergic system, a key system in the function of the brain and nervous system
      Los adolescentes expuestos a niveles elevados de pesticidas tienen un mayor riesgo de depresión, según un nuevo estudio dirigido por José R. Suárez-López, MD, PhD, profesor asistente en el Departamento de Medicina Familiar y Salud Pública de la Universidad de California en San Diego. Escuela de Medicina. El estudio fue publicado en línea (antes de la impresión) en junio de 2019 en la revista International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. Suárez-López y sus colegas han estado siguiendo el desarrollo de los niños que viven cerca de la agricultura en los Andes ecuatorianos desde 2008. En este último estudio, examinaron a 529 adolescentes entre las edades de 11 y 17. Ecuador es el tercer mayor exportador mundial de rosas, con gran parte de la producción de flores ubicada cerca de las casas de los participantes. Al igual que muchos otros cultivos agrícolas, las flores se rocían rutinariamente con insecticidas organofosforados, que se sabe que afectan el sistema colinérgico humano, un sistema clave en la función del cerebro y el sistema nervioso.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Heavy drinking in teens causes lasting changes in emotional center of brain

      Binge drinking in adolescence has been shown to have lasting effects on the wiring of the brain and is associated with increased risk for psychological problems and alcohol use disorder later in life. Now, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics have shown that some of these lasting changes are the result of epigenetic changes that alter the expression of a protein crucial for the formation and maintenance of neural connections in the amygdala -- the part of the brain involved in emotion, fear and anxiety. Their results, which are based on the analysis of postmortem human brain tissue, are published in the journal Translational Psychiatry
      Click this link to read about the study.

      The difference a visit can make, the effect of parental incarceration on children

      When Suzi Jensen went to see her mom in prison at the age of 12 she was only allowed to hug her twice, once at the beginning of the visit and once at the end. “They just had tables and you had to sit across the table from her,” said Jensen, now in her 30s. “At that age, being a 12-year-old girl, there were a lot of things happening, big changes and not being able to sit and cry and talk to her was terrible.”
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Health impact of vaping

      With the news from the US Food and Drug Administration that vaping is skyrocketing among American youth, parents might be wondering how concerned they should be and what they should do if they catch their child using an e-cigarette.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Suspending Young Students Risks Future Success in School

      Some kindergartners and first-graders suspended from school can find it challenging to reverse the negative trajectory in their academic life, says a University of Michigan researcher. These young suspended students -- especially boys -- are likely to be suspended again later in elementary school, according to Zibei Chen, a research fellow at the U-M School of Social Work, and colleagues at Louisiana State University. Schools often use suspensions to discipline students, but questions arise about how effective suspension can be in addressing future behavior problems and the impact on academic progress, Chen says. The result when a solution isn't found? More students dropping out of school. "Not only are children who are suspended at a young age missing out on time spent in early learning experiences, but they are also less likely to be referred to services and supports they need to thrive in later school years," Chen said.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Exposure to tobacco smoke significantly impacts teen health - Secondhand smoke linked to poor health, higher absenteeism, increased likelihood to seek medical attention

      As little as one hour of exposure to tobacco smoke per week can significantly impact the health of teens, according to a University of Cincinnati study published in the September 2018 issue of Pediatrics. "There is no safe level of secondhand smoke exposure," says Ashley Merianos, the lead author of the study and an assistant professor in UC's School of Human Services. "Even a small amount of exposure can lead to more emergency department visits and health problems for teens. That includes not just respiratory symptoms, but lower overall health." The study, "Adolescent Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms, and Emergency Department Utilization," used data from a 2014-15 national survey that looks at tobacco use and related health issues among U.S. people 12 years old and above. A total of 7,389 nonsmoking teens without asthma were included in the study.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Risk-Taking, Antisocial Teens 5 Times More Likely to Die Young

      Adolescents with serious conduct and substance use problems are five times more likely to die prematurely than their peers, with roughly one in 20 dying by their 30s, according to new CU Boulder research. The study, published today in the journal Addiction, also suggests that while drug and alcohol use among adolescents draws more attention, antisocial behavior -- including rule-breaking tendencies -- may be a more powerful predictor of early mortality. "This research makes it clear that youth identified with conduct problems are at extreme risk for premature mortality, beyond that which can be explained by substance use problems, and in critical need of greater resources," said lead author Richard Border, a graduate student with the Institute for Behavioral Genetics.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Parents Who Had Severe Trauma, Stresses in Childhood More Likely to Have Kids with Behavioral Health Problems

      A new study finds that severe childhood trauma and stresses early in parents' lives are linked to higher rates of behavioral health problems in their own children. The types of childhood hardships included divorce or separation of parents, death of or estrangement from a parent, emotional, physical or sexual abuse, witnessing violence in the home, exposure to substance abuse in the household or parental mental illness. "Previous research has looked at childhood trauma as a risk factor for later physical and mental health problems in adulthood, but this is the first research to show that the long-term behavioral health harms of childhood adversity extend across generations from parent to child," said the study's lead author, Dr. Adam Schickedanz. He is a pediatrician and health services researcher and assistant professor in the department of pediatrics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Urban Violence Can Hurt Test Scores Even for Kids Who Don't Experience It

      Children who attend school with many kids from violent neighborhoods can earn significantly lower test scores than peers with classmates from safer areas, according to a new Johns Hopkins University study. In schools where more kids have a high exposure to violence, the study found, their classmates score as much as 10 percent lower on annual standardized math and reading tests. The findings, which demonstrate how urban violence and school choice programs can work together to spread "collateral damage," appear today in the journal Sociology of Education. "Exposure to neighborhood violence has a much bigger impact that we think it does," said the lead author, Johns Hopkins sociologist Julia Burdick-Will. "It seeps into places that you don't expect. It can affect an entire school and how it's able to function."
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Analysis finds lower IQ in children with chronic kidney disease

      NASAT reports that "Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have lower intellectual functioning compared with the general population, with mild deficits across academic skills, executive function, and visual and verbal memory. The findings, which appear in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN), come from an analysis of studies published through 2016. CKD in children clearly affects their physical health, but research also indicates that it can have impacts on neurocognitive function, academic performance, and mental health. This can lead to long-term consequences for children with CKD as they transition into adulthood."
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Increased Air Pollution Linked to Bad Teenage Behavior

      NASAT reports that "A new study linking higher levels of air pollution to increased teenage delinquency is a reminder of the importance of clean air and the need for more foliage in urban spaces, a Keck School of Medicine of USC researcher said. Tiny pollution particles called particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) -- 30 times smaller than a strand of hair -- are extremely harmful to your health, according to Diana Younan, lead author of the study. "These tiny, toxic particles creep into your body, affecting your lungs and your heart," said Younan, a preventive medicine research associate at the Keck School of Medicine. "Studies are beginning to show exposure to various air pollutants also causes inflammation in the brain. PM2.5 is particularly harmful to developing brains because it can damage brain structure and neural networks and, as our study suggests, influence adolescent behaviors." "
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Study links Lead Poisoning and Suspensions

      Justin Murphy, Democrat and Chronicle staff writer reports that "Levels of lead exposure near children’s homes has a direct, causal effect on the likelihood they’ll be suspended from school, according to a review of data on 120,000 students. The finding is very relevant in Rochester, where both those problems persist despite years of attempts to combat them. The most recent local data show that 5.5 percent of children in the city have unsafe levels of lead in their blood, while the Rochester City School District doled out nearly 9,000 suspensions to its 27,500 students in 2016-17. The study, published in May by the National Bureau of Economic Research, used particularly robust lead testing data from Rhode Island and linked it to children’s academic records. They also cross-referenced geographical data, since it has been shown that people living close to heavily trafficked roads during the age of leaded gasoline were disproportionately harmed. Lead levels in blood are measured in micrograms per deciliter (mg/dl). The researchers found that every additional microgram increased a child’s odds of being suspended from school by about 7 percent. They determined the relationship was causal, not correlative, meaning it was the lead that caused the suspension rate to rise."
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Attention deficit after kids' critical illness linked to plasticizers in medical tubes

      Children who are often hospitalized in intensive care units are more likely to have attention deficit disorders later, and new research finds a possible culprit: a high level of plastic-softening chemicals called phthalates circulating in the blood. The researchers, who will present their study results Friday at The Endocrine Society's 98th annual meeting in Boston, suggest these chemicals, which are added to indwelling medical devices such as plastic tubes and catheters, seep into the child's bloodstream. "Phthalates have been banned from children's toys because of their potential toxic and hormone-disrupting effects, but they are still used to soften medical devices," said lead researcher Sören Verstraete, MD, a PhD student at KU (Katholieke Universiteit) Leuven in Leuven, Belgium. "We found a clear match between previously hospitalized children's long-term neurocognitive test results and their individual exposure to the phthalate DEHP during intensive care."
      Click this link to read about the study.

      What you need to know about Lead in Monroe County

      Click this link to read the information.

      Parental Monitoring tied to less Risky Sexual Behavior in Teens

      Medscape reports that "In a recent study, watchful parents had teens who engaged in fewer risky sexual behaviors. When parents were aware of their adolescents' activities, the kids had longer delays before starting to have sex, and when they did have intercourse, they were more likely to use contraceptives, researchers report in the journal Pediatrics, November 30. "Parents can be very helpful for a number of issues particularly for adolescent sexual health," said senior study author Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, of New York University's Silver School of Social Work in New York City. "That's a message that doesn't get out enough." He and his colleagues note that parental monitoring has been tied to sexual risk among adolescents in earlier research. But the new study looked at what types of monitoring are most effective and best for doctors to encourage."
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Children of Severely Obese Moms have higher risk of ADHD

      Medscape reports that "Six-year-olds whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy are more likely to have developmental or emotional problems than kids of healthy-weight moms, according to a new study. The researchers had found evidence of this link in two previous studies, said lead author Heejoo Jo of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia." The research found that "Kids of moms who were severely obese, with a BMI greater than 35, were twice as likely to have emotional symptoms, problems with peers and total psychosocial difficulties compared to kids of moms who had a healthy BMI, between 18.5 and 25."..
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Teenagers increasingly sleep-deprived

      Medscape reports that "US adolescents became progressively more sleep-deprived after 1990, researchers report in an article published online February 16 in Pediatrics. Girls were more likely to be affected than boys, as were racial/ethnic minorities, city dwellers, and those from poor families. Teenagers from racial/ethnic minorities and from poor families were likely to think they were getting enough sleep even when they were not. Katherine M. Keyes, PhD, assistant professor of epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City, and colleagues analyzed data from 1991 through 2012 on 272,077 adolescents from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of adolescent birth cohorts. Participants were asked how often they got at least 7 hours of sleep per night, and how often they got less sleep than they should. The National Sleep Foundation recommends 9 hours of sleep per night for adolescents.".
      Click this link to read about the study.

      Kids with Behavioral Problems have sex earlier

      Medscape reports that "Kids with behavior problems became sexually active earlier than their peers, in a recent study. Having sex early - before age 16 - increases the risk of teen pregnancy, partner violence, sexually transmitted infections and other negative health outcomes, the researchers say. By age 17, 44% of boys and 50% of girls said they'd had intercourse." This study found that "Overall, almost 22% of boys and 25% of girls said they started before age 16, usually around age 15." The study found that "Bad behavior starting at age five for boys and age 10 for girls increased the likelihood of having sex before age 16 when the authors accounted for other factors like parental age, education attainment, and socioeconomic status."
      Click on this link, to read the abstract of the study.

      Fast Food May Lead to Lower Academic Achievement in U.S. Kids

      Medscape reports that "Eating fast food may lead to lower student test scores in math, science and reading, a recent study of U.S. school children said. A survey showed that fast-food consumption by 8,544 fifth-graders forecast lower academic achievement in eighth grade, according to the study published in Clinical Pediatrics."
      Click on this link, to read the abstract of the study.

      Algal Virus Infects, Affects Humans and possibly Human Intelligence

      While studying cognitive function in healthy adults, researchers discovered DNA from an algal virus in throat samples. The virus was associated with reduced cognitive functioning, highlighting how previously overlooked viruses may affect human health and cognition.
      Click on this link, to read the NIH review of the study.
      Click on this link, to read the abstract of the study.

      New Research: Fever During Pregnancy Linked to Birth Defects

      A new metanalysis revealed elevated risk for poor health outcomes among children exposed to maternal fever in utero for 3 common classes of problems: neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, and oral clefts. The researchers identified a 1.5- to nearly 3-fold increased risk with exposure during the first trimester for 9 case-control studies of neural tube defects, 5 case-control studies of oral clefts, and 7 fixed-effects meta analyses of congenital heart defects. Neural tube defects had the strongest relationship to temperature exposure compared with oral clefts and congenital heart defects. Other outcomes included limb deficiencies, renal defects, anorectal malformation, ear defects, cataracts, and allergic diseases, but few studies were available. The analysis did not find an association between exposure to elevated maternal temperature in utero with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or preterm delivery. The studies did not reveal information on what degree of elevated temperature lead to what outcomes.
      Click on this link, to read about the research.

      New Research: Sexting is common, and is linked to increased sexual activity in teens

      Sexting is sending sexually explicit text messages and/or pictures. New research with a group of 400 7th grade students showed that 17 percent reported having sent sexual text messages during the last 6 months and another 5 percent reported sending sexual photos. The subjects in the study who engaged in these behaviors were 4 to 7 times more likely to have reported engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors including oral and vaginal sex when compared to those in the study who had not engaged in either behavior.
      Click on this link, to read about the research.

      New Research: Childhood poverty negatively effects brain development

      New research shows that exposure to poverty in early childhood negatively effects brain development, but that good-quality care giving may help offset this effect. A longitudinal imaging study shows that young children exposed to poverty have smaller white and cortical gray matter as well as hippocampal and amygdala volumes, as measured during school age and early adolescence.
      Click on this link, to read about the research.
      Click on this link, to read an accompanying editorial about the article.

      New Research: Spanking increases aggression and decreases language in children

      New research shows additional evidence that spanking can damage a child's development. The Research shows that when fathers spank their children that as 9 year old's the children had lower levels of receptive vocabulary. When mothers spanked their children the children as 9 years old had had significantly more externalizing behaviors, such as aggression and rule breaking.
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article

      FDA won't ban BPA for now

      The FDA ruled today to not ban BPA. The FDA was forced to rule today on whether or not to ban BPA after a lawsuit from a consumer group. In reviewing the available data the FDA rules that while there were concerns about BPA that there was not enough evidence to ban BPA at this time.
      Click this link to read/listen to an NPR story about the FDA ruling.
      Click this link to read a Medscape article about the FDA action.
      Click this link to read/listen to a NPR article about BPA in food.

      American Academy of Pediatrics looks to US to protect kids from toxic chemicals

      In a new policy statement the AAP has called on the US Government, specifically the EPA to better monitor toxic chemicals in food, clothing and other sources that may be exposing children to unknown risks.
      To read more about the story click on this link.

      Mother's Depression puts Kids at Risk

      Research has shown that children living with depressed mothers are at much higher risk for depression themselves. New research has also shown that treating the mother's depression in turn leads to improvements in the children's moods.
      To read more about the story click on this link

      Plastic and Estrogenic Activity

      Plastic containing BPA has raised a number of health concerns, particularly when children are exposed to it. As noted in the attached article "Those questions largely circle around how prolonged exposure to the chemical in childhood or adulthood could affect reproduction and growth; how low-dose exposure at sensitive developmental stages could affect children and babies later in life; and how parental exposure could affect the next generation. Studies have shown links between BPA and cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and a host of other illnesses." This story points out that using plastics that do not contain BPA also has risks, particularly because they have specific chemical compounds that mimic the estrogen hormone. This may lead to number of factors including early age or menarche in young girls.
      To read the NPR story about this, click on this link.

      Young teens with CD at risk for more severe Conduct Disorder Behaviors

      Young teens who show Conduct Disorder Behaviors are at risk for later more severe Conduct Disorder Behaviors.
      Click on this link to read the study.

      Smoking can increase depressive symptoms in teens

      A new study finds that smoking can increase depressive symptoms in teens.
      Click this link to read more about the study.

      Girls entering puberty earlier

      New Research finds that girls are entering puberty earlier than 12 years ago. The study found that more girls are developing breasts at age 7 than in past studies. The authors found higher rates of early puberty across groups but the highest rates among African American girls. Large body mass indexes were also related to early puberty. The authors speculate that exposure to phthalates (an ingredient in plastics) may be disrupting the hormonal system in young girls. They suggest that families try living greener, trying to minimize exposure to chemicals in the environment, and part of that might be using safer personal care products. They suggested choosing products that are free of the chemical phthalates. They also suggested controlling weight.
      Click on this link to read more about the study.

      Slightly early births linked to autism, dyslexia

      New research from England finds that children born even 1 or 2 weeks early are at a higher risk for developing dyslexia or autism. In analyzing the birth history of more than 400,000 school children in Scotland, the researchers found that while babies born at 40 weeks have a 4 percent risk of learning difficulties, those born at 37 to 39 weeks of gestation have a 5.1 percent risk. The researchers note that many women with planned cesarean deliveries plan on having this done at the 39 weeks.
      To read an article from the BBC on the study click on this link.


      Rochester group launches website devoted to schizophrenia

      CARES (Committee to Aid Research to End Schizophrenia) has started a website offering information about the schizophrenia. The site includes numerous very helpful links and video about his very complex disorder.

      How Schizophrenia Works

      "History suggests that schizophrenia has probably been plaguing people and throwing them into social isolation for millennia. Despite the vast amounts of research, the disorder, characterized by bizarre behavior and emotional withdrawal, remains largely a mystery."
      read more from the article here

      NY Times article on coping with Schizophrenia

      An adult who has survived years of hearing voices shares strategies on how to survive with the disorder.
      read the full article here



      Newborn babies who suffered stroke regain language function in opposite side of brain

      NASAT reports that "It's not rare that a baby experiences a stroke around the time it is born. Birth is hard on the brain, as is the change in blood circulation from the mother to the neonate. At least 1 in 4,000 babies are affected shortly before, during, or after birth. But a stroke in a baby -- even a big one -- does not have the same lasting impact as a stroke in an adult. A study led by Georgetown University Medical Center investigators found that a decade or two after a "perinatal" stroke damaged the left "language" side of the brain, affected teenagers and young adults used the right sides of their brain for language. The findings, reported Feb. 17 in a symposium at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting in Austin, Tex., demonstrates how "plastic" brain function is in infants, says cognitive neuroscientist Elissa L. Newport, PhD, professor of neurology at Georgetown University School of Medicine, and director of the Center for Brain Plasticity and Recovery at Georgetown University and MedStar National Rehabilitation Network. "
      Click this link to read the news story.

      Exercise Promotes Cognitive Recovery After Stroke

      Medscape reports that "Structured physical activity can improve brain function after stroke, a meta-analytic review of relevant studies shows. "We found that a program as short as 12 weeks is effective at improving cognition, and even patients with chronic stroke can experience improvement in their cognition with an exercise intervention," lead author Lauren E. Oberlin, a graduate student at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, said in a statement."
      Click this link to read the news story.

      Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

      NIH reports that "Having diabetes means that you are more likely to develop heart disease and have a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have certain conditions, or risk factors, that increase the chances of having heart disease or stroke, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. If you have diabetes, you can protect your heart and health by managing your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you smoke, get help to stop."
      Click this link to read the news story.

      Headache Far More Common Stroke Symptom in Kids

      Medscape reports that "Children are much more likely than adults to have a headache at onset of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), new research shows. Stroke in children is rare but should be considered as a possible diagnosis in any child with a headache and new-onset focal neurologic symptoms or signs, said lead investigator, Lori L. Billinghurst, MD, clinical assistant professor of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia."
      Click this link to read the news story.

      Brain Stimulation after Stroke Aids Recovery

      Medscape reports that "Stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation who receive repeated brain stimulation do better in terms of recovering movement than those who don't, a new study shows. The randomized trial compared anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to sham stimulation and showed significant improvements in the group receiving tDCS, improvement that persisted after treatment stopped. "Any technique that can be used to enhance the effects of a given dose of rehabilitation is important because rehabilitation is really expensive to deliver," study author Heidi Johansen-Berg, professor of cognitive neuroscience, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, told Medscape Medical News."
      Click this link to read the news story.
      Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

      FDA approves botox for lower limb spasticity

      Medscape reports that "The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox, Allergan Inc) to decrease the severity of stiffness in ankle and toe muscles among adults with lower limb spasticity, the company has announced. The approval was based on a large, development program that included a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that evaluated the safety and efficacy of placebo and Botox at a dose of 300 to 400 units divided among ankle and toe muscles in more than 400 patients with lower limb spasticity following a stroke. The study showed statistically significant improvements at weeks 4 and 6 in the average change in muscle tone, measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale ankle score, and in clinical patient benefit, as assessed by the Clinical Global Impression of Change by Physician. Benefits were observed for arthralgia, back pain, myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, and injection site pain."
      Click this link to read the news story.

    Substance Abuse


      Preventing suicide : information for teachers - Prevención del suicidio: información para profesores

      The teenage years can be full of excitement, opportunities and newfound freedoms. Yet they can also be times fraught with worry about exams, relationships, and keeping up with peers and the latest trends. For some, this burden can become so overwhelming, they take their own lives. But suicide is never the answer. Teachers and other people working in schools can help students look after their mental health.
      Click this link for more information..

      La adolescencia puede ser muy intensa y estar replea de oportunidades y libertades recién descubiertas. Pero también puede estar marcada por las preocupaciones por los exámenes, los primeros amores, y la presión de los compañeros o de las modas. Para algunos adolescentes la carga puede llegar a ser tan pesada que ponen fin a sus vidas. El suicidio nunca es la respuesta. Siempre hay esperanza. Si es usted director de instituto, establezca un plan para ayudar a los estudiantes y los profesores a cuidar de su salud mental.

      Suicide rising across the US

      Suicide is a leading cause of death in the US. Suicide rates increased in nearly every state from 1999 through 2016. Mental health conditions are often seen as the cause of suicide, but suicide is rarely caused by any single factor. In fact, many people who die by suicide are not known to have a diagnosed mental health condition at the time of death. Other problems often contribute to suicide, such as those related to relationships, substance use, physical health, and job, money, legal, or housing stress. Making sure government, public health, healthcare, employers, education, the media and community organizations are working together is important for preventing suicide. Public health departments can bring together these partners to focus on comprehensive state and community efforts with the greatest likelihood of preventing suicide.
      Click on this link to read about the study..

      US Suicide Rates Higher in Less Urban Areas

      Medscape reports that "Geographic disparity in suicide rates in the United States persists, with higher rates in less urban areas and lower rates in more urban settings, according to data released on Thursday by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). During the period 1999-2015, suicide rates across all urbanization levels increased, and the gap in rates between less urban and more urban areas grew over time, particularly during the economic recession in 2007-2008. "Suicide is a major and continuing public health concern in the United States," write Scott R. Kegler, PhD, and colleagues in the March 17 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. During 1999-2015, roughly 600,000 US residents died by suicide, with the highest annual rate occurring in 2015.".
      Click on this link to read about the study..
      Click on this link to read the study..

      Most Individuals receive Health Services a year before Suicide death

      New research indicates that most individuals who commit suicide have been seen for medical visits in the year before thier suicide. As reproted the majority of people who die by suicide have received health care services in the year prior to death. Half have had a medical visit within four weeks of thier suicide. The most common visit types included primary care and medical specialty. The individuals who made these visits were mostly older adults, specifically women. The study also found that over half of individuals did not have a mental health diagnosis in the year before death. In the four weeks before death, about 75 percent did not have a mental health diagnosis. A mental health diagnosis was even less common among disadvantaged groups with lower levels of education and income. The study authors find that there is therefore a key opportunity to reach individuals at risk for suicide within primary care and medical specialty settings that currently is not being optimized.
      Click on this link to read about the study..

      Low Omega 3 levels lead to increased suicide risk among military service members

      A new study in the military matched 800 members of the military who had committed suicide with 800 service members who had not. The study found that those with the lowest DHA levels had the highest rate of suicide. The study also found overall low levels of Omega 3s among all participants DHA is the major Omega 3 fatty acid concentrated in the brain.
      Click on this link, to read the press release from the NIMH.

    Tourette Syndrome

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

      How long will it take me to recover from a concussion? - ¿Cuánto tiempo me llevará recuperarme de una conmoción cerebral?

      When you have a concussion, it is common for MRI or CT scans to come back as “normal.” This does not mean there is no injury.
      Cuando tiene una conmoción cerebral, es común que las imágenes de resonancia magnética o tomografías computarizadas vuelvan como "normales". Esto no significa que no haya lesiones.
      Click this link to read the newsletter - Haga clic en este enlace para leer el boletín..

      Brain Waves: Good vibes for the Arkansas Brain Injury Community - Ondas cerebrales: buena vibra para la comunidad de lesiones cerebrales de Arkansas

      We are excited to present the FIRST EDITION of Brain Waves, a newsletter for the Arkansas Brain Injury Community! Click the link below to view the newsletter. Feel free to download copies to share. To request printed copies or to be added to our newsletter mailing list, please email us at atrp@uams.edu.
      ¡Nos complace presentar la PRIMERA EDICIÓN de Brain Waves, un boletín informativo para la comunidad de lesiones cerebrales de Arkansas! Haga clic en el enlace de abajo para ver el boletín. Siéntase libre de descargar copias para compartir. Para solicitar copias impresas o para agregarlas a nuestra lista de correo del boletín, envíenos un correo electrónico a atrp@uams.edu.
      Click this link to read the newsletter - Haga clic en este enlace para leer el boletín..

      Mental Health Disorders Common Following Mild Head Injury

      A new study reveals that approximately 1 in 5 individuals may experience mental health symptoms up to six months after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), suggesting the importance of follow-up care for these patients. Scientists also identified factors that may increase the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder following mild mTBI or concussion through analysis of the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) study cohort. The study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the National Institutes of Health. The findings were published in JAMA Psychiatry
      Click this link to read the Guidelines.

      NY State - Updated Guidelines for Concussion Management (June 2018)

      The New York State Education Department Guidelines for Concussion Management in Schools have been revised to reflect the current recommendations on managing concussions. Previous guidance was that students must be completely symptom free to return to activities. Now there is emerging research suggesting that some symptoms may be acceptable during return to activities. The updated guidelines now reflect this practice along with emphasizing that schools follow guidance of the student's health care provider on what symptoms are acceptable for return to activities. A gradual return to physical activity typically is done by progressing a student through levels of activity that increase in duration and/or intensity Gradual return to activity should occur with the introduction of a new activity level every 24 hours. If any post-concussion symptoms return, the student should stop the activity and drop back to the previous level of activity. Current research suggests that some level of symptoms with activity is acceptable. Therefore, schools will need to follow provider orders on return to activities. Students should be monitored by district staff daily following each progressive level of physical activity, for any return of signs and symptoms of concussion. A gradual progression should be followed based on the private healthcare provider's or other specialist's orders and recommendations.
      Click this link to read the Guidelines.

      New CDC Guidelines Detail Treatment of Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

      New evidence-based guidelines, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with input from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and others put forward recommendations for a broad range of health care providers responsible for detection and management of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, most of which are concussions. The CDC recommendations are outlined in an Annals of Emergency Medicine editorial and span diagnosis, prognosis, management and treatment in a variety of clinical settings. From 2005-2009, there were almost 3 million emergency visits for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, according to the CDC.
      Click this link to read the Guidelines.

      FACTS: Family, Advocacy, Counseling and Training Services Program for individuals with brain injuries

      The Brain Injury Association of NYS has a local program that also offered across the state called the FACTS program.
      Click this link to read the FACT Information Sheet.
      Click this link to read the About US FACT Information Sheet.

      Nearly a third of children with concussion experience symptoms for a year, NICHD-funded study finds

      Nearly a third of children experiencing a concussion had symptoms up to a year after their injury, according to an NICHD-supported study. Girls suffer worse.
      Click this link to read the the article.

      Cognitive training reduces depression, rebuilds injured brain structure and connectivity after traumatic brain injury

      New research from the Center for BrainHealth at The University of Texas at Dallas shows that certain cognitive training exercises can help reduce depression and improve brain health in individuals years after they have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The recent study, published in Human Brain Mapping, revealed significant reductions in the severity of depressive symptoms, increased ability to regulate emotions, increases in cortical thickness and recovery from abnormal neural network connectivity after cognitive training. "To our knowledge, this is the first study to report brain change associated with reduced depression symptoms after cognitive training," said Dr. Kihwan Han, a research scientist at the Center for BrainHealth who works in the lab of Dr. Daniel Krawczyk. Han is the lead author of the study.
      Click this link to read the the article.

      Post-concussion brain changes persist even after pre-teen hockey players return to play

      NASAT reports that "Young hockey players who have suffered concussions may still show changes in the white matter of the brain months after being cleared to return to play, researchers at Western University have found through sophisticated Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques. The study, published in the October 25, 2017, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology, looked at MRI brain scans from 17 Bantam-level hockey players between the ages of 11 and 14, who suffered a concussion during the regular season and who were compared to an age-matched control of non-concussed players."
      Click this link to read the the article.

      Girl soccer players five times more likely than boys to return to play same day after concussion

      NASAT reports that "A new study found girls were significantly more likely than boys to return to play the same day following a soccer-related concussion, placing them at risk for more significant injury. The study abstract, "Gender Differences in Same-Day Return to Play Following Concussion Among Pediatric Soccer Players," will be presented on Saturday, Sept. 16, during the American Academy of Pediatrics 2017 National Conference & Exhibition in Chicago. The study examined young athletes, average age 14, who sustained a concussion while playing soccer and who were treated at a pediatric sports medicine clinic in Texas. Of the 87 athletes diagnosed with a soccer-related concussion, two-thirds (66.7 percent) were girls. Among them, more than half (51.7 percent) resumed playing in a game or practice the same day as their injury, compared to just 17.2 percent of boys. "
      Click this link to read the the article.

      Kids and Concussions: What do experts think

      NIH Medline Plus reports that "Every year, hundreds of thousands of school-aged children get concussions, a mild form of traumatic brain injury. But the after effects of a concussion can be serious. Experts from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), share what you can do to protect your child from this injury and its consequences."
      Click this link to read the the article.

      Pediatric Exams: Concussion evaluation


      Concussion in Kids: Less-Recognized Visual Changes

      A nice article on visual symptoms that can be seen folloing concussions
      Click this link to read the article.

      Head injuries can alter hundreds of genes and lead to serious brain diseases

      Head injuries can adversely affect hundreds of genes in the brain that put people at high risk for diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, post-traumatic stress disorder, stroke, ADHD, autism, depression and schizophrenia, life scientists report. The researchers have identified for the first time potential master genes which they believe control hundreds of other genes that are linked to many neurological and psychiatric disorders.
      Click this link to read the abstract of the article.

      Here's what happens when you get a concussion

      Business Insider video on Concussion
      Click this link to watch the video.

      Risk of suicide after a concussion

      Medscape reports that "Concussion due to everyday and recreational activities triples long-term suicide risk. The risk increases even further if these injuries occur during the weekend, results of a large study show. "The increased risk applied regardless of demographic characteristics, was independent of past psychiatric conditions, became accentuated with time, followed a dose-response gradient and was not as high as the risk associated with past suicide attempts," the investigators, led by Donald Redelmeier, MD, senior core scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and a physician at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada, write."
      Click this link to read more about the report.

      Concussion effects last longer than previously thought

      Research has investigated the duration of effect of concussion. Overall, 235 children participated in the study, with a mean age of 14.3 years, and 57.4 percent were boys. The research found that Headache was the most common symptom on arrival at the emergency department, reported by 85.1 percent of the patients, followed by fatigue (64.2 percent), taking longer to think (57.8 percent), and poor concentration (52.4 percent). After the initial assessment, 3.8 percent of the remaining children developed a headache, 15.4 percent developed fatigue, 11.1 percent were taking longer to think, and another 13.1 percent complained of poor concentration. By day 7, headaches were still occurring in 69.2 percent of the patients, but by day 90 they had resolved in all but 5.2 percent of 207 children evaluated at that point. Fatigue persisted in 59.8 percent of children at day 7 and was reported by 3.4 percent of 207 children at day 90. More than half of the children (54.3 percent) reported slower thinking at day 7 and 4.3 percent at day 90. In addition, 56.8 percent reported poor concentration at day 7 and 3.4 percent at day 90. Emotional symptoms also developed. Depression, frustration, irritability, and restlessness were initially seen in 22.9 percent, 27.7 percent, 25.5 percent, and 24.6 percent of children, respectively, but by day 7, those percentages had increased to 25.6 percent, 37.6 percent, 30.3 percent, and 31.6 percent, respectively. By 90 days, however, those symptoms had largely resolved, being reported by 1.4 percent, 1.4 percent, 1.9 percent, and 1.4 percent of patients, respectively. Similarly, sleep disturbance occurred in 11.6 percent of patients initially, in 24.8 percent at day 7, and in only 1 percent of the patients at 90 days. The median duration for all symptoms was 13 days.
      Click this link to read more about the report.

      Concussion: Rural versus urban causes of childhood concussion

      Children in rural and urban settings have different causes of concussion. Rural chidren are more likely to recieve a concussion due to a motorized vehicle such as all-terrain vehicles and dirt bikes. Urban youth are more likely to suffer concussions mostly as a result of sports. Hockey accounts for 40 percent of those injuries.
      Click this link to read the study.

      New report on Sports related Concussion in youth

      A new report found that many student athletes feel pressured to not report concussions. The report had a number of findings. These included the following:
      • The reported number of individuals aged 19 and under treated in US emergency departments for concussions and other nonfatal sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) increased from 150,000 in 2001 to 250,000 in 2009.
      • Football, ice hockey, lacrosse, wrestling, and soccer are associated with the highest rates of reported concussions for male athletes at the high school and college levels.
      • Soccer, lacrosse, and basketball are associated with the highest rates of reported concussions for female athletes at at the high school and college levels.
      • Little evidence was found that current sports helmet designs cut the risk for concussions.
      • Most youth athletes with concussion will recover within 2 weeks of the injury, but in 10 percent to 20 percent of cases concussion symptoms persist for several weeks, months, or even years.
      • Athletes who return to play before complete recovery are at increased risk for prolonged recovery or more serious consequences if they sustain a second concussion.
      • That single and multiple concussions can lead to impairments in the areas of memory and processing speed.

      Length of effect from Concussion

      New research suggests differences in how long the symptoms of a concusion last. The research shows that the length of effect varies depending on a number of factors. In girls, the median time to resolution of symptoms was 15 days compared with 12 days in boys. Additionally, the authors noted that real differences were between those who had previous concussions and those who did not. For example, children who had any previous concussion had a median recovery time of 22 days vs 12 days in those who had no previous concussion. Furthermore, the median recovery time in children who experienced a concussion within 1 year of a previous concussion was 35 days, compared with 14 days in children whose previous concussion took place more than 1 year before the current injury.
      Click this link to read the article abstract.

      NICHCY Traumatic Brain Injury Fact Sheet

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) Traumatic Brain Injury Fact Sheet.
      Click this link to download a pdf of the Fact Sheet.

      Suicide Reveals Signs of a Disease Seen in N.F.L. in 21 year old college football player

      There have been a number of stories recently about former NFL players who have died and then have been found to have chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). This is a form of brain damage caused by repeated trauma to the brain. A 21 year old college football played recently committed suicide and was then found to have the early stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Significantly he is reported to have ever had a concussion, although his family states that he may have had past concussions that he never reported. He is the youngest athlete to be found to have signs of CTE.
      To read the NY Times article on this topic click on this link.

      New Guidelines on Concussion

      The American Academy of Pediatrics has released a new study on the extent of concussions in young children. The study found that younger children take longer to recover from concussion, than high school students, who take longer than college students and professional athletes. The researchers recommended both cognitive and physical rest for young students who have suffered a concussion.
      Click this link to read a summary of the studies.
      Click this link to go to the article in Pediatrics and to read the specific recommendations.

      Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Major Depression linked

      A new study finds that more than 53 percent of patients hospitalized for traumatic brain injury (TBI) meet the criteria for major depressive disorder within a year after sustaining their injury. In addition, TBI is associated with increased comorbidity and poorer health-related quality of life in those with Major Depressive Disorder than in those without Major Depressive Disorder.

    Latest Research/Publications

    New Research

    Genetic Syndrome Causing Common Disabilities in Children Identified

    Researchers found an array of birth defects that affect the brain, eye, ear, heart and kidney are caused by mutations to a single gene, according to a new study. A gene called RERE is responsible for the broad range of developmental, physical and intellectual disabilities, researchers at the University of California San Francisco and Baylor College of Medicine found, representing a significant step in treating, or possibly preventing, the disabilities. Previous research had narrowed the mutation down to the 1p36 region of the human chromosome, but only to smaller areas within the region, each of which contains dozens of individual genes.
    Click this link to read about the report.

    Hippocampus suspected in causing difficulties with Social Memory

    New research has singed out a small part of the hippocampus for possibly causing difficulties with Social Memory and as a site for possible therapeutic intervention for select brain disorders. The area know as CA2 is important for social memory, which is the brain's ability to recognize familiar from unfamiliar others. Researchers are hoping that identifying the role of this region could be beneficial in understanding and treating disorders characterized by altered social behavior, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Autism.
    Click this link to read about the report.

    People with Disabilities Nearly Three Times More Likely to Be Victims of Crime

    A new report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics shows that there were an estimated 1.3 million violent crimes against people with disabilities in the U.S. in 2012. The report documents nonfatal serious violent crimes, such as rape, robbery and aggravated assault. The National Crime Victimization Survey found that the age-adjusted rate of violent crimes against people with disabilities was nearly triple that of people without disabilities. Among persons with cognitive disabilities, the rate of serious violent crime doubled during the period of the study.
    Click this link to read about the report.

    FDA approves Blood Test For Intellectual Disability

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized for marketing the Affymetrix CytoScan Dx Assay, which can detect chromosomal variations that may be responsible for a child’s developmental delay or intellectual disability. Based on a blood sample, the test can analyze the entire genome at one time and detect large and small chromosomal changes. According to the National Institutes of Health and the American Academy of Pediatrics, two to three percent of children in the United States have some form of intellectual disability. Many intellectual and developmental disabilities, such as Down syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome, are associated with chromosomal variations. The test known as CytoScan Dx Assay analyzes the entire genome and can detect chromosomal variations associated with Down syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome and other intellectual and developmental disabilities, the FDA said.

    New research shows People with Serious Mental Illnesses Can Lose Weight

    Losing weight is challenging for everyone. It can be particularly difficult for someone with a serious mental illness. An NIMH-funded clinical study proves that a modified diet and exercise program can work for people with serious mental illnesses. Participants lost 7 pounds more than controls-and continued to lose weight. The NIMH reports that "Over 80 percent of people with serious mental illnesses are overweight or obese, which contributes to them dying at three times the rate of the overall population. They succumb mostly to the same things the rest of the population experiences—cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Although antipsychotic medications increase appetite and cause weight gain in these patients, it is not the only culprit. Like the general population, sedentary lifestyle and poor diet also play a part. Lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise should work for these patients, yet they are often left out of weight loss studies."

    Siblings of Children with Disabilities struggle more than their peers

    New Research in the Journal Pediatrics shows that parents of children with disabilities report that their non disabled children struggle more than their peers. Specifically the study found that "Overall, researchers found that parents of children with disabilities reported that their typically developing sons and daughters were more likely to feel sad, nervous or afraid. They also cited more problems with behavior, relating to adults or kids, completing schoolwork and participating in recreational activities."
    Click this link to read more about the study.
    Click this link to read the abstract from the article.

    The White House opens a new web page to help individuals with Mental Health Disorders

    President Obama launched the National Dialogue on Mental Health, bringing together 200 mental health experts, a dozen members of Congress, and celebrities like Glenn Close and Bradley Cooper to start a national conversation about youth and mental health. The White House has also launched a website, mentalhealth.gov, with its tag line “Let’s talk about it.”
    Click this link to go http://www.mentalhealth.gov/.

    Mental Disorders as Brain Disorders: Thomas Insel at TEDxCaltech

    A rethink is needed in terms of how we view mental illness, stated National Institute of Mental Health Director Thomas Insel, M.D., in a recent TEDx talk at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena.

    NIMH proposes new diagnostic category - Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)

    The syndrome, Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS), includes children and teens that suddenly develop on-again/off-again OCD symptoms or abnormal eating behaviors, along with other psychiatric symptoms - without any known cause. An immune-based treatment study is underway at NIH. PANS expands on Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), which is limited to a subset of cases traceable to an autoimmune process triggered by a strep infection. The proposed criteria for PANS would include:
    1. Abrupt, dramatic onset of OCD or anorexia.
    2. Concurrent presence of at least two additional neuropsychiatric symptoms with similarly severe and acute onset. These include: anxiety; mood swings and depression; aggression, irritability and oppositional behaviors; developmental regression; sudden deterioration in school performance or learning abilities; sensory and motor abnormalities; somatic signs and symptoms.
    3. Symptoms are unexplainable by a known neurologic or medical disorder.

    NY State report finds a 'needless risk of harm' for individuals with disabilities in the care of NY State

    The NY Times reported that nearly 300,000 disabled and mentally ill New Yorkers face a “needless risk of harm” because of conflicting regulations, a lack of oversight and even disagreements over what constitutes abuse, according to a draft state report.
    To read the NY Times article, click this link.

    Disability History Museum

    This is an online virtual museum that promotes understanding about the historical experience of people with disabilities by recovering, chronicling and interpreting their stories and the history of individuals with disabilities and key components of the disability rights movement.
    visit the museums website here

    Developmental disabilities are on the rise

    The rates of developmental disabilities has increased 17 percent of the last decade, with particular increases in the rates of ADHD and Autism.
    Click this link to read the article on CNN.
    Click this link to read the abstract or the full paper here.
    you can also view the full paper on the CDC's site here

    Proposed draft of the DSM-V released

    The American Psychiatric Association released a proposed draft today of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th revision (DSM-V). The DSM IV is the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. The DSM is the 'bible' for mental health and medical providers and insurance agencies that codify our understanding of developmental, behavioral, and mental health disorders. The APA has released the draft of the new edition, which represents a decade of work by the APA in reviewing and revising the DSM. This draft is open for public review and comment on the DSM-5 Web siteuntil April 20. After that it will be further reviewed and refined before the APA conducts 3 phases of field trials to test some of the proposed diagnostic criteria before the final version is published in May 2013.

    The proposed changes include a major changes in a number of areas including the removal of the diagnoses of Asperger Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS. These diagnosis will be subsumed under a broader diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders. There are also proposed changes in the Learning Disability area. One of the major changes is a proposed new diagnostic category of Temper Dysregulation with Dysphoria (TDD). The TDD diagnosis if approved would be a new diagnosis in the Mood Disorders' category where many children currently diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder would probably fall.
    To listen to a news story from NPR on the DSM V and children with Bipolar Disorder and the new proposed diagnosis of TDD click on this link.
    To see associated news coverage click on this link.
    Click this link to read a Medscape article on the DSM-V - 2/10/10

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