Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is a neurologic disorder characterized by difficulties with attention, distractibility, and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity. There is a wealth of information on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder available in books and on the internet.
While many people first think about children when ADHD is mentioned, it also exists in adults and can be just as impairing for adults as it is for children. Many adults with ADHD are first diagnosed as Adults often at the insistence of a spouse or boss. ADHD can also have a profound effect on marriages. To read a recent NY Times article on the effect ADHD can have on a marriage click on this link. To connect with a research for couples with ADHD click on this link.
For more information check out the recommended ADHD books and movies on the Recommended Reading page

How Doctor's diagnose ADHD

At DeMarle INC (730-8888) we work with the family's medical team on the diagnosis of ADHD. As noted "This clinician should analyze symptom criteria from at least two sources across two settings (home and school, for example)." At DeMarle INC we strive to get as much data as possible from multiple sources before recommending to the family's medical team whether a diagnosis of ADHD is likely or highly probable.
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InBrief: Executive Function: Skills for Life and Learning

Individuals with ADHD have deficits in executive functions. Individuals with executive function deficts often have difficulties with attention. However individuals with executive functions deficits do not have to have ADHD as these deficits can be caused by a host of other factors and disorders.
This 5-minute video provides an overview of Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function, the joint Working Paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child and the National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs.

    ADHD Research

    Autism, Attention Deficit Result in Distinct Mental Health Problems - El autismo y el déficit de atención resultan en problemas de salud mental distintos

    Adults with autism tend to have a different set of psychiatric conditions than do those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a study of more than 1 million people suggests. Autism and ADHD often overlap and may share biological roots. The new findings may help clinicians spot the conditions that differ among these individuals, such as depression and anxiety, and tailor treatments accordingly. For instance, schizophrenia, is closely associated with autism but not with ADHD, whereas substance abuse disorders are strongly associated with ADHD. "In order to give good treatment, it's important to know these patterns," says lead researcher Kari Klungsovr, professor of medicine at the University of Bergen in Norway
    Los adultos con autismo tienden a tener un conjunto diferente de afecciones psiquiátricas que aquellos con trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), sugiere un estudio de más de 1 millón de personas. El autismo y el TDAH a menudo se superponen y pueden compartir raíces biológicas. Los nuevos hallazgos pueden ayudar a los médicos a detectar las condiciones que difieren entre estos individuos, como la depresión y la ansiedad, y a adaptar los tratamientos en consecuencia. Por ejemplo, la esquizofrenia está estrechamente asociada con el autismo pero no con el TDAH, mientras que los trastornos por abuso de sustancias están fuertemente asociados con el TDAH. "Para dar un buen tratamiento, es importante conocer estos patrones", dice la investigadora principal Kari Klungsovr, profesora de medicina de la Universidad de Bergen en Noruega.
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    Good Sleep a Must for Teens With ADHD

    Teenagers tend to shortchange themselves on sleep, but when they have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), that can really hamper their thinking skills, researchers say. The new study included teen volunteers with ADHD who spent a week in which their sleep was restricted to 6.5 hours per night. That was followed by a week in which they were allowed to sleep up to 9.5 hours each night.
    Click this link to read the material.

    Study: ADHD is Second Most Impactful Health Condition for U.S. Children

    Pediatric attention deficit disorder diagnosis rates continue to climb - up 31% from 2010 to 2017 among Americans aged 2 to 18 years old, according to a recently published study by the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association. In its eight-year study, the company covering one in three insured Americans found that age, gender, and geography all influence the likelihood of an ADHD diagnosis. Middle school students have the highest diagnosis rate (9.0%) and boys are twice as likely as girls to be diagnosed. The highest diagnosis rates were found in the South (7.3 to 11%) and the lowest were in the West (3.1 to 5.1%). The study found that nearly four out of every ten children with ADHD also have an additional behavioral health condition. Nearly 10 percent of middle-school students and 25% of high-school students with ADHD also had depression. For anxiety, these numbers were 23% and 31%, respectively. Learning disorders (26%) were the most common among preschool students with ADHD; LDs were just as prevalent as disruptive behavior disorders (12%) among elementary school students
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    Many Students With ADHD Don’t Get Help at School

    A significant portion of students with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receive no school services despite experiencing significant academic and social impairment, according to a new study published in the Journal of Attention Disorders. This was particularly common among students from non-English-speaking and/or lower-income families.
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    ADHD drugs are unlikely to cause cardiac damage in children who take them, study finds

    With more than 1.8 million children in the U.S. being treated annually with drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the possibility that such drugs could damage their hearts has been a significant cause of concern for parents and physicians alike. Now, the results of a long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study published last month in Pediatric Research could allay many of those concerns.
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    ADHD May Reduce Life Expectancy by As Much As 13 Years

    Childhood ADHD may more drastically shorten a patient’s life expectancy than any other single health threat including high cholesterol, obesity, and alcohol or tobacco use. This is according to a new study by Russell Barkley, Ph.D., who determined that the risk factors associated with childhood ADHD may decrease longevity by up to 13 years.
    Click this link to read the material.

    The Link Between August Birthdays and A.D.H.D.

    The NY Times reports that a new study on the correlation between birthdates and ADHD raises questions about age, maturity and overdiagnosis.
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    1 in 10 Kids Now Diagnosed With ADHD, With Big Increases Among Girls and Kids of Color

    A new study shows that roughly 1 in 10 kids are now diagnosed with ADHD in the United States. That’s a 67 percent increase over the last 20 years. A big reason for the rise is higher rates of ADHD diagnosis among girls and kids of color.
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    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    How Stimulant Treatments for ADHD Work

    Stimulant medications are an effective treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the classroom, parents and teachers say that medications like methylphenidate (MPH) can reduce symptoms and improve behavior. Although stimulants have been in use for decades to treat ADHD in school-aged children, just how they work hasn't been clear. But the results of a new study in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry is filling in critical gaps about the role of improved cognitive functions. "This is the first study to demonstrate that improving short-term working memory and the ability to inhibit are at least part of the way that stimulants work and improve outcomes for ADHD in the classroom," says Larry Hawk, a professor in UB's Department of Psychology and the paper's lead author.
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    ADHD Tied to Increased Concussion Risk for Kids

    Medscape reports that "Children, teens and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be more than four times more likely to sustain traumatic brain injuries than other youth, a Taiwanese study suggests. Researchers examined national health insurance data on more than 72,000 youth with ADHD who ranged in age from 3 to 29 years, as well as a control group of similar young people without ADHD. Study participants were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 and tracked until the end of 2011. Overall, almost 7,100 youth with ADHD, or 9.8 percent, had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the study, compared with about 1,600, or 2.2 percent, of the children and young adults in the control group. Young people with ADHD were 4.6 times more likely to have a traumatic brain injury than their peers without ADHD."

    High Social Media Use may fuel ADHD in Teens

    Medscape reports that "Heavy use of texting, video chatting, and social media may contribute to the onset of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in youth, new research suggests."
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    Children with Autism and ADHD show higher rates of anxiety and mood disorders

    This is not a surprise at DeMarle INC, and we often find high levels of comorbidity among our patients. That is why a thorough and complete educational evaluation is so important so that the treatment plan designed can address the whole child's needs and not just one problem area. "Children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had more than twice the risk of an anxiety or mood disorder in a new study published in Pediatrics."
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    Attention deficit disorders could stem from impaired brain coordination

    NASAT reports that "Researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and colleagues have discovered how two brain regions work together to maintain attention, and how discordance between the regions could lead to attention deficit disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. People with attention deficits have difficulty focusing and often display compulsive behavior. The new study suggests these symptoms could be due to dysfunction in a gene -- ErbB4 -- that helps different brain regions communicate. The gene is a known risk factor for psychiatric disorders, and is required to maintain healthy neurotransmitter levels in the brain. In a study published in the current issue of Neuron, researchers showed mice lacking ErbB4 activity in specific brain regions performed poorly on timed attention tasks. People who lack efficient top-down attention are at a higher risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study is the first to connect ErbB4 to top-down attention. "
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    ADHD Prescriptions Spike in Young Women

    NASAT reports that "According to new Centers for Disease Control (CDC) research, between 2003-2015, the number of privately insured US women aged 15-44 who filled a prescription to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased 344%. Using the Truven Health MarketScan commercial database, researchers examined outpatient pharmacy prescription drug claims for ADHD medications among female patients which included 2.3-6.8 million reproductive-age women per year who had ?11 months of enrollment in a private health insurance that covered prescription drugs. Researchers reported the percentage of women who filled at least 1 prescription for an ADHD medication rose from 0.9% in 2003 to 4% in 2015, a 344% increase. "
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    Amid ADHD spike, doctors urge closer look at sleep issues

    Science Daily reports that "Amid a steady rise in the number of children diagnosed with ADHD, debate is brewing whether the condition may be a sleep disorder. At a recent Paris scientific conference, scientists in psychiatry discussed evidence supporting the theory that sleep and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are intertwined. However, some experts caution that more proof is needed to make the association and that many new cases involve children whose sleep disorders cause behaviors that mimic ADHD. "If adults don't get enough sleep, they'll appear sleepy," says Dr. Syed Naqvi, a pediatric sleep expert at UT Southwestern's Peter O'Donnell Jr. Brain Institute. "Children don't do that. They show ADHD-like behavior instead -- hyperactive or inattentive." "
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    Different Types of ADHD Are Rooted In Different Areas of the Brain, Study Says

    NASAT reports that "A recent brain imaging study suggests that different ADHD subtypes each originate in a distinct part of the brain, and may in fact be separate disorders. The results, if replicated, would challenge long-standing beliefs that ADHD is one disorder with several common variations, and may open the door to more personalized treatment strategies, the study's authors said. The study, published last year in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, examined 117 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 who had been diagnosed with ADHD. Initially, researchers tested each child's executive functions and tendency towards immediate rewards, and used the results to divide them into 3 groups: one that struggled solely with executive functions, one that struggled with both executive functions and reward management, and a third that performed similarly to children without ADHD on both tests. Each child then underwent an fMRI scan."
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    ADHD med use during pregnancy and risk of birth defects

    NASAT reports that "Adults, including women of reproductive age, are increasingly being prescribed medications to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but little evidence has been available about whether exposure to these drugs during early pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects. A new study conducted by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in collaboration with investigators in the five Nordic countries leverages data from multiple large cohorts to define and quantify what, if any, increased risk may be posed by taking the most commonly used ADHD medications. The team found that one medication, methylphenidate, increased risk of heart defects by a small amount while another medication, amphetamines, did not. Their findings are published this week in JAMA Psychiatry."
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    MRI shows brain differences among ADHD patients

    NASAT reports that "Information from brain MRIs can help identify people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish among subtypes of the condition, according to a study appearing online in the journal Radiology. ADHD is a disorder of the brain characterized by periods of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. The disorder affects 5 to 7 percent of children and adolescents worldwide, according to the ADHD Institute. The three primary subtypes of ADHD are predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and a combination of inattentive and hyperactive. While clinical diagnosis and subtyping of ADHD is currently based on reported symptoms, psychoradiology, which applies imaging data analysis to mental health and neurological conditions, has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for helping to clarify diagnoses."
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    Chronic Sleep Disturbances May Trigger ADHD Symptoms, Not Vice Versa

    NASAT reports that "A new theory hypothesizes that ADHD symptoms may be caused by a lack of regular circadian sleep, positing that attention and sleep troubles may be "two sides of the same physiological and mental coin" - not just two sometimes-overlapping conditions. The theory was presented by Professor Sandra Kooij at the 30th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress, held in early September in Paris, France. There, Kooji outlined extensive research linking ADHD to sleep problems, and offered new evidence that distorted circadian rhythms and ADHD symptoms may be interrelated for many people with the disorder. "There is extensive research showing that people with ADHD also tend to exhibit sleep problems," Kooij said. "What we are doing here is taking this association to the next logical step: pulling all the work together that leads us to say that, based on existing evidence, it looks very much like ADHD and circadian problems are intertwined in the majority of patients.""
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    Children, particularly girls, treated for ADHD, can still struggle in school

    Medscape reports that "Even when children take drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) they may still have a hard time succeeding in school, and girls may struggle more than boys, a new study suggests. That’s because children taking medication for ADHD are more likely than other children to need special education services, to be chronically absent or expelled, to get lower grades and to leave school before age 16, the study found. “Fewer girls are treated for ADHD, but when girls are diagnosed they fare worse than boys with ADHD,” said senior study author Dr. Jill Pell of the University of Glasgow in Scotland"

    Nonadherence to ADHD Medication in Adolescents Transitioning Into College

    NASAT reports that "Nonadherence to medical treatment is a major problem, especially in adolescents and young adults whose nonadherence rates can be as high as 75% for chronic illnesses. Majority of nonadherence studies in adolescents have primarily focused on illnesses like asthma, cancer, HIV, and diabetes. However, very little adherence literature exists on conditions that affect mental health, like attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Nonadherence to ADHD medication can have significant consequences for individuals including greater symptom severity, poor academic performance, less productivity, decreased focus, and impaired communication skills. Long-term consequences can include the inability to successfully complete college degrees, little to no progress in career development, poor social life, and low work performance ratings. It is important to better understand the challenges individuals with ADHD face, especially while transitioning to college. Complications at this stage of life can have significant long-term repercussions on social health and career development."
    Click this link to read the NASAT article..

    Long-term Use of ADHD Meds: No Benefit, Small negative impact on Adult Growth

    Medscape reports that "Children who are treated with stimulant medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and who continue that treatment into adulthood may experience a suppression of height as adults without experiencing any ongoing reductions in symptoms, results of a long-term follow-up study indicate. The Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) showed that although the number of children with ADHD who consistently received treatment into adulthood is relatively small, those who continued to receive these medications showed no differences in symptom severity in comparision those who took treatment holidays or who stopped treatment all together."
    Click this link to read the Medscape article..
    Click this link to read the article..

    Autoimmune Disease Linked to ADHD

    Medscape reports that "A history of autoimmune disease, either personal or maternal, is linked to an increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, with type 1 diabetes showing a particularly strong association, new research shows. "In this nationwide study, autoimmune disease in the individual and a maternal history of autoimmune disease were associated with an increased risk of ADHD," the authors, led by Soren Dalsgaard, MD, PhD, with Aarhus University, Denmark, write."
    Click this link to read the Medscape article..
    Click this link to read the article..

    Research: ADHD Brain is different

    Medscape reports that "The structure of the brain of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differs from that of normally developing children ? a difference that is clearly visible on MRI. This suggests that ADHD should be considered a neurologic disorder, researchers say."
    Click this link to read the Medscape article..
    Click this link to read about the report..

    Is licorice intake during pregnancy linked to ADHD in offspring?

    NASAT reports that "There is an abundance of foods that should be avoided during pregnancy, and a new study suggests that licorice should sit firmly in this category. Researchers have found that children born to mothers who consume large amounts of licorice during pregnancy may be more likely to develop behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Study co-author Katri Räikkönen, from the University of Helsinki in Finland, and colleagues hypothesize that glycyrrhizin (the active ingredient in licorice) may interfere with fetal neurodevelopment by increasing levels of "the stress hormone" cortisol. The researchers recently reported their findings in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Though licorice is often hailed for its medicinal benefits - such as the alleviation of peptic ulcers and canker sores - studies have indicated that the plant-derived product has some downsides."
    Click this link to read about the report..

    Asthma and ADHD linked to poverty, while Autism is linked to wealth

    Medscape reports that "The national prevalence of parent-reported asthma, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise in the United States, as are accompanying comorbid disorders, but poverty influences the prevalence of each of these conditions differently, according to a longitudinal analysis of the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). The study was published online February 13 in Pediatrics. "[W]e conducted a data analysis using the 3 waves of the [NSCH] from 2003 through 2012," Christian Pulcini, MD, from the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pennsylvania, and colleagues write. "Within this study's time period, there was a rise in parent-reported lifetime prevalence of all 3 target disorders." Specifically, between 2003 and 2011-2012, the relative increase in lifetime prevalence of asthma was 18%, it was 44% for ADHD, and it was almost 400% for ASD."
    Click this link to read about the report..
    Click this link to read about the report..

    Adjusting ADHD medicines may help with sleep

    Medscape reports that "Children and adolescents receiving stimulant medications suffer sleep impairment and should be monitored for sleep issues, and perhaps switched to different dosing schedules, according to a small meta-analysis published online November 23 and in the December issue of Pediatrics. Objective measurements of sleep in randomized controlled trials published up to March 2015 found that these medications, used in an estimated 7% of US children and youth for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), resulted in poor sleep patterns. These included longer latency, worse efficiency, and shorter duration, report researchers led by Katherine M. Kidwell, MA, a pediatric psychologist at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln"
    Click this link to read about the report..

    NCHS ADHD Brief

    Insurance and socioeconomic status as well as race/ethnicity seem to influence whether a child is diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a new data brief from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
    Click this link to read about the report..
    Click this link to go to the report..

    ADHD is linked to premature Death

    Medscape reports that "Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more than twice as likely to die prematurely compared with their counterparts without the disorder, new research shows. The study, which is the first to demonstrate a direct association between ADHD and increased mortality, included nearly 2 million people and had a 32-year follow-up period. Mortality rates were highest among people diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood, at the age of 18 years or older (MRR, 4.25; 3.05 - 5.78). The risk was lower among children diagnosed at ages younger than 6 years (MRR, 1.86), and it was lowest among those diagnosed from the ages 6 to 17 years (MRR, 1.58).
    Click this link to go to the article..

    Exercise reduces symptoms and improves cognitive function in children with ADHD

    A study published in the journal Pediatrics shows that regular exercise reduces symptoms of ADHD in children with ADHD and improves children's cognitive functions.
    Click this link to read about the study..
    Click this link to go to the article in the Pediatrics..
    Click this link to download the pdf of the study..

    Sex-Based Brain differences visible in Kids with ADHD

    Medscape reports that "Boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show differences in brain structure that are consistent with observed differences in clinical presentation between the sexes, a new imaging study shows. "Our findings suggest that boys, at least in this age range, demonstrate more problems with motor control, whereas the girls show more abnormalities in circuits responsible for a higher level of organization and planning."
    Click this link to download the pdf of the study..

    Another Medication fails to treat ADHD kids' sleep problems

    Many children with ADHD struggle with sleep. There have been attempts to find medications that can help with that issue. This latest research investigated whether Lunestra could help with sleep. Medscape reports that "A large, randomized, controlled 12-week trial of eszopiclone (Lunesta, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc) in children and adolescents with ADHD and insomnia was no better than placebo in treating the sleep disorder. This study comes on the heels of an earlier trial of zolpidem (multiple brands) that showed similar results."
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study..

    Before-School exercise may reduce ADHD symptoms

    New Research further confirms the fact that exercise can reduce the severity of ADHD symptoms. In this recent study researcers found that moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise in the morning may reduce symptoms of ADHD in young children at risk for the illness. In a randomized study involving Kindergarten through 2nd grade students, those students that completed a 12 weeks of before-school physical activity had significantly higher rates of reduction in their ADHD symptoms of inattention and moodiness, when compared to a control group who completed a sedentary classroom-based intervention.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study..

    New Study shows stimulant use does not effect height in ADHD

    Medscape reports that "Previous research has produced a foggy picture of the relationships among ADHD, stimulants, and growth. Whereas some studies suggest that young adolescents with ADHD are shorter than their peers without ADHD, regardless of treatment, others suggest that patients with ADHD who are not treated with stimulants are taller than their peers. Still other studies suggest that children referred for ADHD are taller at baseline than those not referred." A new study finds that neither ADHD nor stimulant medication appear to be linked to children's growthor their height in adulthood.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    ADHD proposed to be a disorder based on poor decision making

    Medscape reports that "A novel approach to evaluating the neural processes of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reveals that, contrary to convention, the condition does not necessarily represent a learning impairment as much as it does a decision-making impairment.'Individuals with ADHD cannot be characterized by an impaired learning rate per se, in contrast to what has been suggested by theoretical models,' the authors, led by Tobias U. Hauser, PhD, University College London's Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, write. 'Rather, they show a less fine-grained decision process and explore more frequently.'"
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    Eye Test May Diagnose ADHD, Predict Medication Response

    Medscape reports that "A simple test examining involuntary eye movements may provide an objective way to tell whether individuals have ADHD and whether stimulant medication will be an effective treatment." It reports that "Investigators from Tel Aviv University in Tel Hashomer, Israel, observed increased microsaccades and blink rates in adults with ADHD, which normalized with methylphenidate treatment. 'We had 2 objectives going into this research,' lead investigator Moshe Fried, PhD, from the Goldschleger Eye Institute, said in a statement. 'The first was to provide a new diagnostic tool for ADHD, and the second was to test whether ADHD medication really works — and we found that it does. It is certainly not a placebo, as some have suggested.'
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    ADHD and Sleep Disorders

    Nearly 50% of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder experience transient sleeping problems, and another 10% have persistent sleeping problems.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    ADHD stimulant Medications may double Cardivascular Event Risk in Children

    The use of psychostimulants in children and adolescents was associated with nearly twice the risk for a cardiovascular event compared with nonuse of the drugs, and the risk is even higher when the drugs are used for the treatment of ADHD, new research suggests. However, some experts are questioning whether these findings are clinically meaningful. The study included 700,000 Danish children born between 1990 and 1999. Overall, the use of stimulants in the population of 714,258 was associated with a nearly 2-fold risk for a cardiovascular event.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

    Anxiety and Quality of Life in Children with ADHD and Anxiety Disorders

    New Research from Australia reports that the presence of 2 or more comorbid anxiety disorders in children with ADHD impairs functioning, increases problematic behavior, and is associated with a poorer quality of life when compared with children with ADHD who have only 1 anxiety disorder or no anxiety disorders. The study included 392 children with diagnostically confirmed ADHD. Anxiety comorbidities included separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The research found that 36 percent of the participants had no comorbid anxiety; 26 percent had 1 anxiety disorder; and 39 percent had 2 or more anxiety disorders. Social phobia was the most common anxiety comorbidity, occurring in 48 percent of children with 2 or more anxiety disorders. This was followed by generalized anxiety disorder (34 percent); separation anxiety (32 percent); OCD (8 percent); PTSD (6 percent); and panic disorders (2 percent).
    Click this link to read the study.

    ADHD Stimulant Use and Obesity

    New Research shows a connection between ADHD, Stimulant Use, and Teen obesity. The research shows that children with ADHD who were not on stimulant medication had a faster rate of increase in their BMI than children without ADHD. Children with ADHD treated with stimulants demonstrated slower BMI growth early in childhood, but then rebounded later in adolescence with higher BMIs. Their BMIs were higher than in children without a history of ADHD or stimulant use.
    Click this link to read the study.

    Neurofeedback for ADHD: New research shows significant, lasting improvement at 6 months post study

    A new study conducted in the School setting showed significant and lasting improvement at 6 months for students with ADHD who were provided training with Neurofeedback. The study involved two experimental groups and a control group. Both experimental groups were provided training for 3x 45-minute intervention sessions per week in the classroom for a total of 40 sessions under the supervision of a research assistant. The first group received training with in neurofeedback the second with Cognitive Training software. Neurofeedback has been a hotly debated and controversial treatment for ADHD. The children wore a bicycle helmet with electroencephalographic sensors embedded it to increase their beta waves (an attentive state) and to suppress theta waves (a drowsy state) when viewing their brain waves on a computer screen. The Cognitive Training involved cognitive exercises that focused on attention and working memory with computer feedback to reinforce correct responses. The neurofeedback program as Play Attention, Unique Logic and Technology Inc. The Cognitive Training was program as Captain's Log, BrainTrain. Observations before and immediately after the interventions, reported previously by the investigators, showed significantly greater improvements in ADHD symptoms, including attention and executive functioning, in the neurofeedback group relative to the CT or control condition groups. At 6 months the same findings were revealed. One additional finding was that children who were already on medication who were in the in the neurofeedback group maintained their stimulant medication dose while presumably experiencing the same physical growth and increased school demands as children in the Cognitive Training and control groups, whose medication dosage increased by 9 to 13 mg methylphenidate-equivalent units.
    Click this link to go to the journal.

    Prenatal Acetaminophen Linked to Behavioral Problems in Children

    Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen -- a drug considered safe in pregnancy -- may raise the risk for behavioral problems in children, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD), a severe form of ADHD, new research suggests. The study found that for all outcomes, stronger effects were seen among children exposed to acetaminophen during more than 1 trimester and among those exposed for a greater number of weeks.
    Click this link to go to the journal.

    Sluggish Cognitive Tempo proposed as Distinct type of ADHD

    Sluggish Cognitive Tempo has been proposed by Dr. Russell Barkley and others to be a distinct type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Individuals with SCT like individuals with ADHD have symptoms that typically presents in childhood. Characteristic features described in the literature include being daydreamy, mentally foggy, easily confused, and staring frequently. Affected individuals may also have symptoms of hypoactivity, lethargy, slow movement, and even sleepiness. Children with SCT also appear to have slow processing speed and reaction times. There is not current official diagnosis of SCT, but some researchers believe that there maybe one in the future. The current issue of the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology includes a special section on SCT.
    Click this link to go to the journal.

    Methylphenidate Linked to Priapism, Prompts FDA Warning, Label Change

    Methylphenidate has been linked to a rare risk for priapism in males taking the stimulant for the treatment of ADHD, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns. In a release, the agency reports that the stimulant may in rare instances cause prolonged and sometimes painful erections, and as a result, it has updated drug labels to alert the public to this rare but serious side effect.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the article.

    Number of children in US with ADHD continues to rise

    The number of children diagnosed with ADHD has increased and more US children are on medication to treat their ADHD. The new study from investigator's from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that from 2003 to 2011, 6.4 million children in the United States, a total of 11% of 4- to 17-year-olds, were reported by their parents to have received a diagnosis of ADHD. This constituted a 42% increase from the period 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. In addition, the researchers found that more than 3.5 million children in the United States (6% of 4- to 17-year-olds) were reported by their parents to be taking medication for ADHD. This was a 28% increase from 2007-2008 to 2011-2012. The report also showed that children are commonly being diagnosed at a young age, with half diagnosed by age 6 years. However, among children with more severe ADHD, 50% receive a diagnosis by age 4 years.

    Prenatal risk factors for ADHD are the same for boys and girls

    A very large study from Australia looked at prenatal risk factors for ADHD. The study included 12,991 children and adolescents with ADHD and 30,071 children without the disorder who acted as controls. The study found that there was an elevated risk for ADHD in both boys and girls when mothers had a urinary tract infection during pregnancy, or preeclampsia . Mothers of children with ADHD were also significantly more likely to be younger, single, to have smoked during pregnancy, to have had labor induced, and to have experienced threatened preterm labor.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the article.

    One third of individuals with Autism have ADHD

    Almost one-third of children with autism also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and symptoms appear to be more severe in kids affected by both conditions, new research suggests. The findings come from a long-term study of 162 children who were tracked starting when they were still infants or toddlers. By the time the kids reached ages 4 through 8, researchers found that 63 had autism. Of those with the developmental disorder, parent reports indicated that 18 of the children — or about 29 percent — also had clinically significant symptoms of ADHD.
    Click this link to read go about the study.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the article.

    Children diagnosed with ADHD in Preschool have chronic and severe ADHD 6 years later

    New Research shows that children with ADHD diagnosed in Preschool have chronic and severe ADHD at follow-up 6 years later.
    Click this link to go to the study.

    Teenage boys with ADHD on stimulants are shorter and thinner

    New Research suggests that the use of stimulants in teenage boys with ADHD can slow their growth. The study found that teenage boys with ADHD start puberty at the same time as other teenage boys, but have delayed growth spurts. The authors suggest making sure teenage boys are on the lowest therapeutic dose possible to help prevent any problems with growth.
    Click this link to read about the study.
    Click this link to go to the study.
    Click this link to read a pdf of the report.

    The rate of ADHD diagnoses has continued to rise

    The NY Times reports that "Nearly one in five high school age boys in the United States and 11 percent of school-age children over all have received a medical diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to new data from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Click this link to read the article.
    Click this link to read a pdf of the report.
    Click this link to read more about the survey.

    Girls with ADHD more prone to Self-Harm, Suicide in later years

    Research says that as girls with ADHD become adults, they are especially prone toward internalizing their problems and feelings of inadequacy - that in turn can lead to self-injury and even attempted suicide.
    Click this link to read the article.

    Students with ADHD helped by the use of a daily report card

    A new small study found a statistically significant improvement in student with ADHD when their teachers used a daily report card that was sent home (daily) and when parents then provided home reinforcement or consequences for the child's report card.
    Click this link to read the article.

    NY Times article on the misuse of stimulant medications

    A New York Times article on the use of stimulant medication in high school students who do not have ADHD for the purpose of getting better grades and into better colleges. The article points to the fact that children are feeling pressure to do well in School and on their PSATs and SATs and lying to their doctors to get prescriptions or buying from friends so that they can do better on the tests.
    Click this link to read the article.

    Executive Function and ADHD

    While a child's impulsivity may be obvious their struggles with executive function can often be hidden. In this helpful blog Dr. Bertin explains what executive function disorders are. I like his analogy of the iceberg, where the hyperactivity is the part of the iceberg everyone sees above the water, but the executive function issues, like time management and organization, and the larger areas no one sees under the water.
    Click this link to read the article.

    ADHD Behavioral Therapy may be more effective then medicine in the long run

    An article reviewing recent research indicating that cognitive and behavioral therapies that help young people reduce impulsivity and cultivate good study habits are costlier and take longer to administer, but may be more efficacious over time.
    Click this link to read the article.

    Early start of Stimulant medication helps prevent academic difficulties in children with ADHD.

    A new study published in Pediatrics shows that the early initiation of stimulant medication (between 4-7th grades) prevents later academic difficulties, particularly in math.
    Click this link to read the medscape article about the study.
    Click this link to read the abstract of the article from Pediatrics.

    Stimulant use for ADHD continues to rise

    The prescribed use of stimulant medications to treat ADHD rose slowly but steadily from 1996 to 2008, according to a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Agency for Health care Research and Quality (AHRQ).
    Click this link to read the article in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

    Young adolescents with ADHD at increased risk for unintentional injury

    New Research finds that young adolescent with ADHD have a higher risk for injury primarily broken bones than their nonADHD peers.
    Click this link to read more about the study.
    Click this link to read the article in Academic Pediatrics.

    New Research from the MTA - Chronic use of stimulant medications to treat ADHD does not appear to cause high blood pressure, but may affect heart rate

    Chronic use of stimulant medication to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children does not appear to increase risk for high blood pressure over the long term, but it may have modest effects on heart rate, according to follow-up data from the NIMH-funded Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA).
    Click this link to read the article in American Journal of Psychiatry.

    ADHD medicines in preliminary review does not raise sudden death risk

    The Food and Drug Administration has been reviewing a massive analysis of health records to tease out whether there is connection between stimulant medications and sudden death.
    Click this link to read the study.

    Sleep deprived children with ADHD do worse

    In this study researchers found that children with ADHD are more wary and less attentive with only a small bit of sleep deprivation (missing an hour a night of sleep for 6 days.
    Click this link to read the study

    70% of children with ADHD have a co-occurring condition.

    The study based in Los Angeles found that about 8% of children in the study had been diagnosed with ADHD. The authors then estimated from that population that there are about 4 million cases of ADHD in children aged 6 to 17 in the U.S.. the authors then found that around 70% of their study participants were reported to have at least one of ten (they only asked about 10) related cormorbid conditions, such as Learning Disabilities, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome.
    Click here to read the article

    ADHD related to Diet

    New research has once again suggested a connection between diet and ADHD. We know what we eat contributes to our mental and emotional states, but can it cause someone to develop ADHD or does it simply make someone's ADHD worse or better.
    find out more here

    FDA panel votes not to label food dyes as a cause of ADHD

    An FDA panel has voted not to label specific food dyes as being a cause of ADHD. The question of whether food dyes, which are a petroleum based product, cause ADHD first arose in the 1960's and has gone in and out of favor since that time. The recent question has been whether 8 (yellow 5 and 7 other synthetic food dyes) of the 9 color additives that are currently approved for use in food in the United States lead to higher levels of ADHD. The FDA panel voted 8 to 6 not to ban these food dyes.

    ADHD increases over 21% among 4-17 year olds in 4 years

    New Research shows the parent reported rate of ADHD diagnosis in Children 4-17 years of age grew from 7.8% to 9.5% during 2003 - 2007. This represents a 21.8% increase in 4 years.
    Click on this link to read about the study.

    One Million More U.S. Kids Are Diagnosed With Attention Deficit

    The number of U.S. children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rose by about 1 million, reflecting more premature births and increased awareness among parents and doctors, researchers said.
    To read the whole story click on this link.

    Reading Disability Risk in children with ADHD

    New Research finds a strong correlation between ADHD and Reading Disabilities. The study, which looked at more than 5,000 Minnesota youth, found that children with ADHD have dramatically higher rates of reading disabilities than youth without the disorder. The incidence of reading disabilities among boys with ADHD was 51 percent, and among girls it was 46.7 percent. For boys without ADHD, the reading disability rate among the study participants was 14.5 percent; among girls it was 7.7 percent. This news is particularly noteworthy for girls, because those who don't have ADHD have relatively low rate of reading disabilities, according to the study. The authors conclude: "Although the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline on the diagnosis and evaluation of children with ADHD does not specifically recommend psychoeducational testing for every child with ADHD, our findings clearly demonstrate that it is essential for clinicians to assess all children with ADHD for the presence of comorbid [reading disabilities.]"
    Click this link to the read the article.

    ADHD is a genetic disorder

    New evidence that ADHD is a genetic disorder. There has long been a debate about whether ADHD is a behavioral disorder or neurodevelopmental disorder. My patients know that I have long considered ADHD a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to challenges with behavior and learning. A new study from England provides further proof that ADHD is a genetically based disorder.
    Click this link to read a Reuters News Story about the study.
    Click this link to read Science Daily story about the study.

    CBT significantly reduced ADHD symptoms in Adults with ADHD

    New Research finds that adults with ADHD, who previously took medication alone, showed significant improvements in their ADHD symptoms when they received three months of counseling using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).
    Click on this link to read more about the story and hear an interview with the study author.

    One third of Children and Teens with ADHD drop out of high school

    New research shows that teens with ADHD are significantly more likely to drop out of high school or delay high school graduation rates. While ADHD is often not viewed in more media as a not serious condition, it is very serious. This new study finds that children and adolescents with ADHD have a significantly higher occurrence of school dropping out than children with any other mental health disorder, including Bipolar Disorder.
    To read more about the study click on this link
    click on this link for more information.

    Tai Chi helpful in reducing symptoms of ADHD

    New Research finds that in a small study the practice of tai chi chuan for 6 weeks during a summer camp improved behavior control in adolescents with mental illness. The authors "found beneficial effects in controlling hyperactivity in the group as a whole, and adolescents with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)also showed improvements in cognitive skills, "said Peng Pang, MD, a resident in psychiatry at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
    For more information click on this link.

    Pesticide exposure may cause ADHD

    A new study, with a new major finding finds that pesticides used on food, maybe a leading cause of ADHD,...or not. The study found that in a representative sample of US children, those with higher levels of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in their urine were more likely to have ADHD than children with lower levels. The researchers found that each 10-fold increase in urinary concentration of organophosphate metabolites was associated with a 55% to 72% increase in the odds of ADHD.
    The reason for the ..or not, is that any research needs to be replicated, and their is always a question of correlation versus causation. Do pesticides exposure cause ADHD, or are children with ADHD for some reason more likely to be exposed to higher levels of pesticides.

    Children With ADHD at Risk for Zinc and Copper Deficiency

    A new study presented at the annual conference of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry finds that children with ADHD are at risk for being deficient in their zinc and copper levels, 2 micronutrients needed for the production of key neurotransmitters.
    Click this link to read the article

    Evaluating Prescriptions Drugs used to treat ADHD: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety and Cost

    Many parents struggle with the decision to try medication and often feel lost in the decision making process. The National Institutes of Health recommend the following guide from Consumers Report: Evaluating Prescriptions Drugs used to treat ADHD: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety and Cost. As the author's note in the report the guide is written to provide parents with information to review and the discuss with their child's Pediatrician, Doctor, or psychiatrist.
    Click this link to read the article.

    ADHD Treatments

      What to know about guanfacine for the treatment of ADHD

      Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that typically develops in children but can also occur in adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the United States, doctors had diagnosed about 6.1 million children with ADHD by 2016. The CDC also report that 62% of these children were taking medications to treat their symptoms that year. Doctors typically prescribe stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), for people with ADHD. However, they may recommend trying a nonstimulant drug if other medications are unsuccessful or cause unwanted side effects. In this article, we discuss the use and effectiveness of guanfacine for the treatment of ADHD. We also cover dosage and side effects, as well as risks and considerations.
      Click on this link, to read the article.

      Adhansia approved by FDA for treatment of ADHD - Why Did the FDA Approve This New High-Dose ADHD Drug?

      A new time-released formulation of a drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat children as young as six years old.
      Click on this link, to read the article.

      FDA Oks First Medical Device To Treat ADHD In Children - La FDA aprueba el primer dispositivo médico para tratar el TDAH en niños

      "Stephen Hinshaw, a professor of psychology at University of California, Berkeley, has led a large research study of ADHD since 1992. He said the pro of the device is that it 'appears to be safe, and the initial study is thoughtful and promising.' However, the FDA’s sign-off was based on just the one 'single, small, short-term trial — which did not compare eTNS to established treatments.' The trial, he said, was bound to get hopes up, but 'far more research is needed to demonstrate ultimate efficacy.'”
      "Stephen Hinshaw, profesor de psicología en la Universidad de California en Berkeley, ha dirigido un gran estudio de investigación sobre el TDAH desde 1992. Dijo que el profesional del dispositivo es que parece ser seguro y que el estudio inicial es reflexivo y prometedor. . Sin embargo, la aprobación de la FDA se basó solo en el único "ensayo único, a corto plazo, que no comparó eTNS con los tratamientos establecidos". El ensayo, dijo, estaba destinado a tener esperanzas, pero "se necesita mucha más investigación para demostrar la máxima eficacia".
      Click on this link, to read the article.
      Click on this link, to read the notice from the FDA.

      10 Vitamins and Minerals Recommended for Children with ADHD

      "Research shows that medication does a good job of managing attention deficit disorder (ADHD or ADD) symptoms in many children and adults. Still, the thought of starting your eight-year-old son or daughter on a drug, no matter how effective it might be, causes lots of soul-searching in parents before they agree to do it. There are potential side effects to be considered, along with the fact that medications don't work the same way for every child in managing symptoms. So some parents look for alternatives, such as nutrition, exercise and supplements, to help their child deal with symptoms. It is important to understand what a supplement is. A nutritional supplement provides basic nutrients for optimal health and function that you may not be getting from your diet. Supplements include vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fats. I don't include herbal or botanical ingredients, such as ginkgo or St. John's wort, in the supplement category"
      Click on this link, to read the article.

      6 Reasons ADHD Treatment Fails

      The media generally portrays attention deficit disorder (ADD or ADHD) as a controversial diagnosis. Some doubters question whether it is a real disorder, despite the fact that ADHD has been acknowledged by medical researchers since 1902, and it was first found to be responsive to stimulants in 1936. It has been treated with medication by professionals ever since. Why, then, do so many with ADHD struggle to find relief from their symptoms? Here are six common obstacles to successful treatment.
      Click on this link, to read the article.

      Omega 3s - The Ultimate (ADHD) Brain Food

      There’s a reason why the American Psychiatric Association recommends that every man, woman, and child in America eat fish — particularly fatty fish, like salmon and tuna — two or more times a week. And why they also recommend that people with “impulse control disorders,” like attention deficit disorder (ADHD or ADD), supplement their daily diets with at least 1 gram of fish oil. The reason: Omega-3 fatty acids really do help brains, particularly ADHD ones, function better."
      Click on this link, to read the article.

      How Schools Can Optimize Support for Children with ADHD

      New research gives the clearest guidance yet on how schools can best support children with ADHD to improve symptoms and maximize their academic outcomes. The study, led by the University of Exeter and involving researchers at the EPPI-Centre (University College London), undertook a systematic review which analyzed all available research into non-medication measures to support children with ADHD in schools. Published in Review of Education, the paper found that interventions which include one-to-one support and a focus on self-regulation improved academic outcomes. Around five per cent of children have ADHD, meaning most classrooms will include at least one child with the condition. They struggle to sit still, focus their attention and to control impulses much more than ordinary children of the same age.
      Click this link to read the article .

      Tips for supporting students who struggle with executive function skills like time management and active listening

      Executive function is an umbrella term in neuroscience to describe the neurological processes involving mental control and self-regulation. Executive functions control and regulate cognitive and social behaviors like controlling impulses, paying attention, remembering information, planning and organizing time and materials, and responding appropriately to social situations and stressful situations.

      The Checkup - When Medicines Affect a Child’s Mind and Behavior

      From the NY Times - What doctors and parents should discuss about medicating a child for A.D.H.D., anxiety or depression.
      Click this link to read the article .

      ADHD Medications: Of All Available Drugs, Methylphenidate Should be First Option for Short-Term Treatment in Children

      Of the drugs available for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most effective and safe for short-term treatment is methylphenidate for children, and amphetamines for adults, according to the most comprehensive evidence yet from a network meta-analysis and systematic review comparing the effectiveness and safety of seven ADHD drugs against placebo, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal. The study compared the effectiveness and side effects of amphetamines (including lisdexamfetamine), atomoxetine, bupropion, clonidine, guanfacine, methylphenidate, and modafinil with each other or with placebo over 12 weeks of treatment. However, more research to confirm longer term effects of ADHD medications is urgently needed.
      Click this link to read the article .

      ADHD Alternative Treatment: What You Need to Know

      Whether or not your child is taking ADHD medication, you may wonder what else might help reduce symptoms. Medication remains the most effective treatment for roughly 80 percent of kids with ADHD (also known as ADD). Behavior therapy can also be helpful. But there are alternative treatments you can try in addition to or instead of medication or behavior therapy. Some of these options are backed by research as being effective to some extent. Others you may hear about aren’t. It’s important to check with your child’s doctor before starting any alternative treatment.
      Click this link to read the article .

      Diet for ADHD

      Following a diet for ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) can help minimize symptoms and promote healthy brain function. Unfortunately, many individuals are unaware of the role food and proper diet plays when it comes to their ADHD.
      Click this link to read the article .

      ADHD and Messiness

      Many families come in with concerns about thier child's messiness and organizational struggles. While this can be a sign of later problems, the most pressing problem is often the family fights about this issue. But you don't have to fight. There are many ways to work on this. For specific suggestions call the office and set up an appointment 585-730-8888

      For children with ADHD, a brief, school-based program can help dramatically with homework problems, study finds

      NASAT reports that "Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who took part in a brief, school-based program displayed significant improvements in their homework, organization and planning skills, according to a new study led by a Virginia Commonwealth University professor. The study, "Overcoming the research-to-practice gap: A randomized trial with two brief homework and organization interventions for students with ADHD as implemented by school mental health providers," will be published in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology and was led by Joshua Langberg, Ph.D., an associate professor in the Department of Psychology in the College of Humanities and Sciences. The study tested the effectiveness of the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills intervention, better known as HOPS, which has been implemented in hundreds of schools across the country. Langberg designed the HOPS program to help children with ADHD improve their organization, time management and planning skills related to homework completion."
      Click this link to read the story

      FDA Clears First Generic Versions of Strattera for ADHD

      Medscape reports that "The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the first generic versions of Strattera (atomoxetine, Eli Lilly) to treat children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The generic versions of Strattera, which come in multiple strengths, are from Apotex Inc, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, and Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited."
      Click this link to read the story
      Click this link to read the news release

      Strattera shows promise for treating dyslexia

      New research using a study wwith 209 children (aged 10 - 16 years) with dyslexia only, 124 children with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D) and 27 children with only ADHD, that the use of Strattera (Atomexetine) improved reading in the children with dyslexia and ADHD and dyslexia.
      Click this link to read about the studies

      Lower Adherence to a mediterranean Diet Linked to ADHD

      Medscape reports that "A new cross-sectional study shows a higher risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children and adolescents who are less adherent to a Mediterranean diet than those who are more adherent to the diet. "Previous studies done in other countries showed that low-quality diets are persistently associated with a higher risk of ADHD [but] no studies had been done regarding the Mediterranean diet and ADHD," senior author Maria Izquierdo-Pulido, PharmD, PhD, University of Barcelona, Spain, told Medscape Medical News."
      Click this link to read the Medscape article..
      Click this link to read the article..

      FDA approves chewable Methylphenidate (QuilliChew) for ADHD

      Medscape reports that "The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a chewable tablet form of extended-release methylphenidate (QuilliChew ER, Pfizer Inc) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 6 years and older, the company announced today. The chewable product will be available in tablet form in strengths of 20, 30, and 40 mg. The tablets will be scored to allow prescribers to individualize the dose to meet the specific needs of individual patients with ADHD. It is to be taken once daily in the morning with or without food. The product is expected to be available in pharmacies in the first quarter of 2016, the company said. The recommended starting dose is 20 mg daily, with the dosage increased or decreased weekly in increments of 10, 15, or 20 mg per day, the company said. Daily doses higher than 60 mg are not recommended.".
      Click this link to go to the article to the FDA..

      Exercise reduces symptoms and improves cognitive function in children with ADHD

      A study published in the journal Pediatrics shows that regular exercise reduces symptoms of ADHD in children with ADHD and improves children's cognitive functions.
      Click this link to read about the study..
      Click this link to go to the article in the Pediatrics..
      Click this link to download the pdf of the study..

      Medscape reports FDA concerned over bioequivalence of two generic ADHD Medicines

      An internal US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) re-examination of previously submitted data has raised concerns that two generic medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may not have the same therapeutic benefits as the reference brand-name product (Concerta).
      Click this link to go to the site.

      ADHD medications and how they work

      Confused about medication choices for treating ADHD. This very helpful and informative article from the National Center for Learning Disabilities explains those choices."
      Click this link to read a pdf of the article..

      Children with ADHD and Aggression benefit from dual drug therapy

      New research suggests that Children with ADHD and Agression benefit from the use of a dual medication therapy through the use of both a stimulant medication and an antipsychotic medication, such as risperidone (Risperdal). Medscape reports that "Children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and severe aggression may benefit from having an antipsychotic added to a psychostimulant medication as well as behavioral parent training, new research suggests. New data from the Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study confirms that such combination therapy is efficacious."
      Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

      Adding in Gaunafacine for the treatment of hard to treat ADHD

      Medscape reports that "Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who do not respond well to psychostimulant monotherapy may benefit from adding guanfacine extended-release (Intuniv, Shire), a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial shows. Among a group of children and adolescents who had a suboptimal but at least partial response to a psychostimulant, adding guanfacine extended-release produced greater response and symptomatic remission rates than continued psychostimulant monotherapy, the researchers, led by Andrew J. Cutler, MD, of the Florida Clinical Research Center in Bradenton, note."
      Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

      Behavioral Interventions Effective in Treating ADHD

      A metanalysis shows that using behavioral interventions to treat children and adolescents with ADHD can improve both child and parent functioning.
      Click this link to read the abstract of the study.

      Omega 3s are effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and in increasing word reading

      A new study in Nutrition suggests that high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA helps improve the condition of ADHD. More specifically the researchers found increased intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was associated with improved word reading and better behaviors.
      Click this link to read the article.

      FDA approves a new 12 hour liquid ADHD medication

      FDA approves a once a day liquid ADHD medication. The new medicine Quillivant XR (methylphenidate hydrochloride) while a once day medicine, has a duration of effect of 12 hours. This is a boon for children who have difficulty taking pills.
      Click this link to read the article.

      5 Questions to ask before starting your child on medication for ADHD

      A helpful guide to read when confronted with the question of should you put your child (or start medication yourself if you are an adult). Remember medications can make a significant difference in the lives of people with ADHD, but they are hardly ever the only treatment option and many individuals can do well with out needing to take medication. Pills don't teach skills. As my patients know effective treatment of ADHD involves some or all of the following areas:
      Building and focusing on Strengths
      Considering the use of medication or using the appropriate medication
      Counseling to deal with the emotional impact for the person and family members of the disorder
      Life style interventions: diet, exercise, sleep, etc...
      For children who need them receiving appropriate services (504 plans, IEPS) or reasonable accommodations if an adult or college student.
      Click this link to read the article.

      New Treatment Guidelines: Kids as young as 4 can have ADHD.

      In October of 2011 the American Academy of Pediatrics issues new treatment guidelines. These guidelines have expanded the age range for diagnosis and treatment to ages 4 through 18. The previous guidelines, from 2000 and 2001, targeted children ages 6 to 12, the new report covers children from preschool to the end of high school. This is based on recent evidence that supports including preschool children and adolescents in ADHD diagnosis and treatment management.
      Click this link to read about the study.
      Click this link to read about the study.
      Click this link to read the AAP guidelines.

      AAP releases new ADHD guidelines broadening the age range to diagnosis ADHD

      The American Academy of Pediatrics has issued new guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and has expanded the age range for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. The guidelines calls for the diagnosis and treatment of children as young as 4 and as old as 18.
      Click this link to read more about the study from an article on Medline.
      Click this link to read a news release from the AAP.
      Click on this link to download and read a Medscape article about the guidelines.
      Click this link to download a pdf with a full text of the article from Pediatrics. Published online October 16, 2011.

      Meta-analysis shows Omega 3s effective in treatment of ADHD

      Medscape reports that "Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid may decrease symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, a new meta-analysis suggests.
      In an evaluation of 10 trials with 699 total children with ADHD, investigators found that those who received omega-3 supplements had a "small but significant" improvement in symptom severity compared with those who were given placebo. This effect was also significant in the children who received supplements that specifically contained higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid.
      "I was actually expecting this treatment to not be effective at all, that we shouldn't expect much from a nutritional supplement that often takes a while to work. So the results were a surprise to me," lead author Michael H. Bloch, MD, assistant professor at the Yale Child Study Center at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, told Medscape Medical News.
      "However, I would hope that nobody thinks the take-home message is that omega-3s are the answer for everyone in lieu of traditional medications," said Dr. Bloch.
      In fact, the investigators note that the relative efficacy of this treatment "was modest compared with currently available pharmacotherapies for ADHD, such as psychostimulants, atomoxetine, or a2 agonists."
      Still, because of its "relatively benign side-effect profile," they write, omega-3 supplements may be a reasonable add-on to traditional interventions or an option for families who do not want other psychopharmacologic treatments.
      "I think the medication treatments we currently have for ADHD work best. But omega-3 represents a potentially safer alternative, especially in mild cases," said Dr. Bloch.
      The study was published online August 16 in the Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
      Past Research Results "Mixed"

      According to the investigators, past research has shown that individuals with ADHD have omega-3 differences in both plasma and erythrocyte membranes compared with their healthy peers.
      "Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and phospholipid composition," they explain.
      Although several studies have looked at how effective omega-3 is in treating ADHD, the results have been mixed, prompting the need for the current meta-analysis.
      The researchers examined 10 randomized control trials that compared omega-3 supplements with placebo in children with ADHD. All studies were conducted between 2001 and 2009 and lasted between 7 weeks and 4 months.
      ADHD severity improvement, as measured by mean differences in rating scales, was the primary outcome. In secondary analysis, the investigators assessed dosing effects of the following omega-3 fatty acids found within the supplements used: eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and a-linolenic acid.
      Efficacy When Studies Combined

      Results showed significant efficacy of omega-3 supplementation compared with placebo in only 2 of the trials. Of the remaining studies, 6 showed no benefit at all, and 2 showed benefit only on some of the ADHD rating scales.
      Still, the overall analysis did show a significant improvement in ADHD symptoms for the participants receiving omega-3 compared with those receiving placebo (standard mean difference [SMD], 0.31; P less than .0001).
      "Looking at these studies individually, most did not find that omega-3 was effective. It was only when you combined them that the effect became significant to a small degree," said Dr. Bloch.
      Results were similar when parental ratings of ADHD severity were assessed (SMD, 0.29; P = .0002), and when separate evaluations of inattentive (SMD, 0.29; P = .009) and hyperactivity (SMD, 0.23; P = .005) symptoms were conducted.
      Omega-3 supplements that included higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid were also significantly associated with lowering ADHD symptoms (P = .04).
      There were no significant differences found for any dose of docosahexaenoic acid or a-linolenic acid, or between omega-3 monotherapy vs augmenting traditional ADHD medications with omega-3.
      "No evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity between trials was found," write the researchers.
      However, "because of poor quality and potential issues of blinding in many of the included trials," further studies are needed to replicate the results, they write.
      "I think this is something that's potentially useful for families who either don't respond to treatment with traditional medications or are hesitant to take them because of side effects," said Dr. Bloch.
      He added that he hopes a future multisite trial with at least 400 children will be conducted to finally give "a definitive answer on how much omega-3 might really work."
      Missing Side Effects Profile

      "This is a well-done meta-analysis with attention to several aspects," Jaswinder Kaur Ghuman, MD, associate professor of psychiatry and pediatrics at the University of Arizona, Tucson, told Medscape Medical News.
      However, she added that one of her concerns is the investigators' statement that omega-3 treatments have a benign side effects profile.
      "They did not include analysis of side effects from the included studies, neither do they discuss what are the side effects of omega-3 supplements. Anecdotally, I have seen some people be unable to tolerate [these] supplements due to gastrointestinal upset."
      Dr. Ghuman said that if parents are interested in letting their children try omega-3 supplements for their ADHD symptoms, "they should be advised to use adequate doses for effectiveness and tolerability should be carefully monitored."
      The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and from the National Center for Research Resources, and by the National Institute of Mental Health, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education/Eli Lilly and Co Psychiatric Research Fellowship, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Eli Lilly and Co Pilot Research Award, the Trichotillomania Learning Center, and the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression. The study authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships."
      Click this link to read the study.

      FDA approves Intuniv as stimulant adjunct for ADHD

      The FDA has approved the use of guanfacine extended-release tablets (Intuniv) made by Shire Plc, for the adjunct use with another stimulant for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. The approval was based on a 9-week placebo-controlled study of Intuniv. In the study, Intuniv was given in combination with a stimulant medication. The control group only received the stimulant medication. The children receiving the stimulant and Intuniv together showed greater reduction of ADHD symptoms than the children only taking a stimulant.
      Click this link to read more about the study.

      ADHD Medication Guide

      There are a number of different medications that can be used to treat ADHD. There are also a number of other ways to treat ADHD besides medication. This helpful page details the different types of medications available.
      Click on this link to download the pdf version.
      Click on this link to go the related article on WebMed.

      FDA approves Vyvanse for Teens with ADHD

      FDA Approves Vyvanse(R) (lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate) Capsules CII For The Treatment Of ADHD In Adolescents.
      To read more about the story click this link.

      FDA approves Daytrana for use with adolescents

      FDA approves Daytrana for use in adolescents from 13-17 years of age. Daytrana was previously approved for children from 5 - 12 years of age. Daytrana is a stimulant medication administered through a transdermal patch.

    Adult ADHD

ADHD Quicklinks

ADHD medications and how they work - 9/18/14
Click this link to go to the NICHY ADHD page.
Click this link to download a pdf of the NICHY ADHD Fact Sheet.

Recommended ADHD Resources

© Copyright, all rights reserved Daniel J. DeMarle, Ph.D. 2014